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80
Universal coalgebra: a theory of systems
, 2000
"... In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certa ..."
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Cited by 298 (31 self)
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In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certain types of automata and more generally, for (transition and dynamical) systems. An important property of initial algebras is that they satisfy the familiar principle of induction. Such a principle was missing for coalgebras until the work of Aczel (NonWellFounded sets, CSLI Leethre Notes, Vol. 14, center for the study of Languages and information, Stanford, 1988) on a theory of nonwellfounded sets, in which he introduced a proof principle nowadays called coinduction. It was formulated in terms of bisimulation, a notion originally stemming from the world of concurrent programming languages. Using the notion of coalgebra homomorphism, the definition of bisimulation on coalgebras can be shown to be formally dual to that of congruence on algebras. Thus, the three basic notions of universal algebra: algebra, homomorphism of algebras, and congruence, turn out to correspond to coalgebra, homomorphism of coalgebras, and bisimulation, respectively. In this paper, the latter are taken
Higherdimensional algebra VI: Lie 2algebras,
, 2004
"... The theory of Lie algebras can be categorified starting from a new notion of ‘2vector space’, which we define as an internal category in Vect. There is a 2category 2Vect having these 2vector spaces as objects, ‘linear functors’ as morphisms and ‘linear natural transformations ’ as 2morphisms. We ..."
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Cited by 44 (12 self)
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The theory of Lie algebras can be categorified starting from a new notion of ‘2vector space’, which we define as an internal category in Vect. There is a 2category 2Vect having these 2vector spaces as objects, ‘linear functors’ as morphisms and ‘linear natural transformations ’ as 2morphisms. We define a ‘semistrict Lie 2algebra ’ to be a 2vector space L equipped with a skewsymmetric bilinear functor [·, ·]: L × L → L satisfying the Jacobi identity up to a completely antisymmetric trilinear natural transformation called the ‘Jacobiator’, which in turn must satisfy a certain law of its own. This law is closely related to the Zamolodchikov tetrahedron equation, and indeed we prove that any semistrict Lie 2algebra gives a solution of this equation, just as any Lie algebra gives a solution of the Yang–Baxter equation. We construct a 2category of semistrict Lie 2algebras and prove that it is 2equivalent to the 2category of 2term L∞algebras in the sense of Stasheff. We also study strict and skeletal Lie 2algebras, obtaining the former from strict Lie 2groups and using the latter to classify Lie 2algebras in terms of 3rd cohomology classes in Lie algebra cohomology. This classification allows us to construct for any finitedimensional Lie algebra g a canonical 1parameter family of Lie 2algebras g � which reduces to g at � = 0. These are closely related to the 2groups G � constructed in a companion paper.
Higher gauge theory
"... Just as gauge theory describes the parallel transport of point particles using connections on bundles, higher gauge theory describes the parallel transport of 1dimensional objects (e.g. strings) using 2connections on 2bundles. A 2bundle is a categorified version of a bundle: that is, one where t ..."
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Cited by 41 (12 self)
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Just as gauge theory describes the parallel transport of point particles using connections on bundles, higher gauge theory describes the parallel transport of 1dimensional objects (e.g. strings) using 2connections on 2bundles. A 2bundle is a categorified version of a bundle: that is, one where the fiber is not a manifold but a category with a suitable smooth structure. Where gauge theory uses Lie groups and Lie algebras, higher gauge theory uses their categorified analogues: Lie 2groups and Lie 2algebras. We describe a theory of 2connections on principal 2bundles and explain how this is related to Breen and Messing’s theory of connections on nonabelian gerbes. The distinctive feature of our theory is that a 2connection allows parallel transport along paths and surfaces in a parametrizationindependent way. In terms of Breen and Messing’s framework, this requires that the ‘fake curvature ’ must vanish. In this paper we summarize the main results of our theory without proofs. 1
Operads In HigherDimensional Category Theory
, 2004
"... The purpose of this paper is to set up a theory of generalized operads and multicategories and to use it as a language in which to propose a definition of weak ncategory. Included is a full explanation of why the proposed definition of ncategory is a reasonable one, and of what happens when n <= 2 ..."
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Cited by 32 (2 self)
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The purpose of this paper is to set up a theory of generalized operads and multicategories and to use it as a language in which to propose a definition of weak ncategory. Included is a full explanation of why the proposed definition of ncategory is a reasonable one, and of what happens when n <= 2. Generalized operads and multicategories play other parts in higherdimensional algebra too, some of which are outlined here: for instance, they can be used to simplify the opetopic approach to ncategories expounded by Baez, Dolan and others, and are a natural language in which to discuss enrichment of categorical structures.
Elements Of The General Theory Of Coalgebras
, 1999
"... . Data Structures arising in programming are conveniently modeled by universal algebras. State based and object oriented systems may be described in the same way, but this requires that the state is explicitly modeled as a sort. From the viewpoint of the programmer, however, it is usually intend ..."
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Cited by 30 (7 self)
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. Data Structures arising in programming are conveniently modeled by universal algebras. State based and object oriented systems may be described in the same way, but this requires that the state is explicitly modeled as a sort. From the viewpoint of the programmer, however, it is usually intended that the state should be "hidden" with only certain features accessible through attributes and methods. States should become equal, if no external observation may distinguish them. It has recently been discovered that state based systems such as transition systems, automata, lazy data structures and objects give rise to structures dual to universal algebra, which are called coalgebras. Equality is replaced by indistinguishability and coinduction replaces induction as proof principle. However, as it turns out, one has to look at universal algebra from a more general perspective (using elementary category theoretic notions) before the dual concept is able to capture the relevant ...
Higher dimensional algebra V: 2groups
 Theory Appl. Categ
"... A 2group is a ‘categorified ’ version of a group, in which the underlying set G has been replaced by a category and the multiplication map m: G×G → G has been replaced by a functor. Various versions of this notion have already been explored; our goal here is to provide a detailed introduction to tw ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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A 2group is a ‘categorified ’ version of a group, in which the underlying set G has been replaced by a category and the multiplication map m: G×G → G has been replaced by a functor. Various versions of this notion have already been explored; our goal here is to provide a detailed introduction to two, which we call ‘weak ’ and ‘coherent ’ 2groups. A weak 2group is a weak monoidal category in which every morphism has an inverse and every object x has a ‘weak inverse’: an object y such that x ⊗ y ∼ = 1 ∼ = y ⊗ x. A coherent 2group is a weak 2group in which every object x is equipped with a specified weak inverse ¯x and isomorphisms ix: 1 → x ⊗ ¯x, ex: ¯x ⊗ x → 1 forming an adjunction. We describe 2categories of weak and coherent 2groups and an ‘improvement ’ 2functor that turns weak 2groups into coherent ones, and prove that this 2functor is a 2equivalence of 2categories. We internalize the concept of coherent 2group, which gives a quick way to define Lie 2groups. We give a tour of examples, including the ‘fundamental 2group ’ of a space and various Lie 2groups. We also explain how coherent 2groups can be classified in terms of 3rd cohomology classes in group cohomology. Finally, using this classification, we construct for any connected and simplyconnected compact simple Lie group G a family of 2groups G � ( � ∈ Z) having G as its group of objects and U(1) as the group of automorphisms of its identity object. These 2groups are built using Chern–Simons theory, and are closely related to the Lie 2algebras g � ( � ∈ R) described in a companion paper. 1 1
Components of the Fundamental Category
 Appl. Categ. Structures
, 2003
"... In this article we study the fundamental category [10, 9] of a partially ordered topological space [15, 12], as arising in e.g. concurrency theory [5]. The "algebra" of dipaths modulo dihomotopy (the fundamental category) of such a pospace is essentially finite in a number of situations: We defi ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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In this article we study the fundamental category [10, 9] of a partially ordered topological space [15, 12], as arising in e.g. concurrency theory [5]. The "algebra" of dipaths modulo dihomotopy (the fundamental category) of such a pospace is essentially finite in a number of situations: We define a component category of a category of fractions with respect to a suitable system, which contains all relevant information. Furthermore, some of these simpler invariants are conjectured to also satisfy some form of a van Kampen theorem, as the fundamental category does [9, 11]. We end up by giving some hints about how to carry out some computations in simple cases.
Convex hull realizations of the multiplihedra
, 2007
"... Abstract. We present a simple algorithm for determining the extremal points in Euclidean space whose convex hull is the n th polytope in the sequence known as the multiplihedra. This answers the open question of whether the multiplihedra could be realized as convex polytopes. Contents ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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Abstract. We present a simple algorithm for determining the extremal points in Euclidean space whose convex hull is the n th polytope in the sequence known as the multiplihedra. This answers the open question of whether the multiplihedra could be realized as convex polytopes. Contents
MONADS AND COMONADS ON MODULE CATEGORIES
"... known in module theory that any Abimodule B is an Aring if and only if the functor − ⊗A B: MA → MA is a monad (or triple). Similarly, an Abimodule C is an Acoring provided the functor − ⊗A C: MA → MA is a comonad (or cotriple). The related categories of modules (or algebras) of − ⊗A B and comodu ..."
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Cited by 12 (10 self)
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known in module theory that any Abimodule B is an Aring if and only if the functor − ⊗A B: MA → MA is a monad (or triple). Similarly, an Abimodule C is an Acoring provided the functor − ⊗A C: MA → MA is a comonad (or cotriple). The related categories of modules (or algebras) of − ⊗A B and comodules (or coalgebras) of − ⊗A C are well studied in the literature. On the other hand, the right adjoint endofunctors HomA(B, −) and HomA(C, −) are a comonad and a monad, respectively, but the corresponding (co)module categories did not find
MonoidLabeled Transition Systems
"... Given a # complete (semi)lattice L, we consider Llabeled transition systems as coalgebras of a functor L () , associating with a set X the set L X of all Lfuzzy subsets. We describe simulations and bisimulations of Lcoalgebras to show that L () weakly preserves nonempty kern ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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Given a # complete (semi)lattice L, we consider Llabeled transition systems as coalgebras of a functor L () , associating with a set X the set L X of all Lfuzzy subsets. We describe simulations and bisimulations of Lcoalgebras to show that L () weakly preserves nonempty kernel pairs i# it weakly preserves nonempty pullbacks i# L is join infinitely distributive (JID). Exchanging L for a commutative monoid M, we consider the functor M () # which associates with a set X all finite multisets containing elements of X with multiplicities m # M . The corresponding functor weakly preserves nonempty pullbacks along injectives i# 0 is the only invertible element of M, and it preserves nonempty kernel pairs i# M is refinable, in the sense that two sum representations of the same value, r 1 + . . . + r m = c 1 + . . . + c n , have a common refinement matrix (m i,j ) whose kth row sums to r k and whose lth column sums to c l for any 1 # k # m and 1 # l # n.