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14
Holographic Algorithms: From Art to Science
 Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity Report
, 2007
"... We develop the theory of holographic algorithms. We give characterizations of algebraic varieties of realizable symmetric generators and recognizers on the basis manifold, and a polynomial time decision algorithm for the simultaneous realizability problem. Using the general machinery we are able to ..."
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Cited by 40 (16 self)
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We develop the theory of holographic algorithms. We give characterizations of algebraic varieties of realizable symmetric generators and recognizers on the basis manifold, and a polynomial time decision algorithm for the simultaneous realizability problem. Using the general machinery we are able to give unexpected holographic algorithms for some counting problems, modulo certain Mersenne type integers. These counting problems are #Pcomplete without the moduli. Going beyond symmetric signatures, we define dadmissibility and drealizability for general signatures, and give a characterization of 2admissibility and some general constructions of admissible and realizable families. 1
Holographic Algorithms with Matchgates Capture Precisely Tractable Planar #CSP
"... Valiant introduced matchgate computation and holographic algorithms. A number of seemingly exponential time problems can be solved by this novel algorithmic paradigm in polynomial time. We show that, in a very strong sense, matchgate computations and holographic algorithms based on them provide a un ..."
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Cited by 16 (7 self)
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Valiant introduced matchgate computation and holographic algorithms. A number of seemingly exponential time problems can be solved by this novel algorithmic paradigm in polynomial time. We show that, in a very strong sense, matchgate computations and holographic algorithms based on them provide a universal methodology to a broad class of counting problems studied in statistical physics community for decades. They capture precisely those problems which are #Phard on general graphs but computable in polynomial time on planar graphs. More precisely, we prove complexity dichotomy theorems in the framework of counting CSP problems. The local constraint functions take Boolean inputs, and can be arbitrary realvalued symmetric functions. We prove that, every problem in this class belongs to precisely three categories: (1) those which are tractable (i.e., polynomial time computable) on general graphs, or (2) those which are #Phard on general graphs but tractable on planar graphs, or (3) those which are #Phard even on planar graphs. The classification criteria
Holographic algorithms: the power of dimensionality resolved
 In: Automata, Languages and Programming. In: Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci
, 2007
"... Valiant’s theory of holographic algorithms is a novel methodology to achieve exponential speedups in computation. A fundamental parameter in holographic algorithms is the dimension of the linear basis vectors. We completely resolve the problem of the power of higher dimensional bases. We prove that ..."
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Cited by 11 (4 self)
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Valiant’s theory of holographic algorithms is a novel methodology to achieve exponential speedups in computation. A fundamental parameter in holographic algorithms is the dimension of the linear basis vectors. We completely resolve the problem of the power of higher dimensional bases. We prove that 2dimensional bases are universal for holographic algorithms. 1
From Holant To #CSP And Back: Dichotomy For Holant c Problems
"... We explore the intricate interdependent relationship among counting problems, considered from three frameworks for such problems: Holant Problems, counting CSP and weighted Hcolorings. We consider these problems for general complex valued functions that take boolean inputs. We show that results fro ..."
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Cited by 10 (6 self)
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We explore the intricate interdependent relationship among counting problems, considered from three frameworks for such problems: Holant Problems, counting CSP and weighted Hcolorings. We consider these problems for general complex valued functions that take boolean inputs. We show that results from one framework can be used to derive results in another, and this happens in both directions. Holographic reductions discover an underlying unity, which is only revealed when these counting problems are investigated in the complex domain C. We prove three complexity dichotomy theorems, leading to a general theorem for Holant c problems. This is the natural class of Holant problems where one can assign constants 0 or 1. More specifically, given any signature grid on G = (V, E) over a set F of symmetric functions, we completely classify the complexity to be in P or #Phard, according to F, of X Y fv(σ E(v)), σ:E→{0,1} v∈V where fv ∈ F ∪ {0, 1} (0, 1 are the unary constant 0, 1 functions). Not only is holographic reduction the main tool, but also the final dichotomy can be only naturally stated in the language of holographic transformations. The proof goes through another dichotomy theorem on boolean complex weighted
Bases Collapse in Holographic Algorithms
 Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity Report
, 2007
"... Holographic algorithms are a novel approach to design polynomial time computations using linear superpositions. Most holographic algorithms are designed with basis vectors of dimension 2. Recently Valiant showed that a basis of dimension 4 can be used to solve in P an interesting (restrictive SAT) c ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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Holographic algorithms are a novel approach to design polynomial time computations using linear superpositions. Most holographic algorithms are designed with basis vectors of dimension 2. Recently Valiant showed that a basis of dimension 4 can be used to solve in P an interesting (restrictive SAT) counting problem mod 7. This problem without modulo 7 is #Pcomplete, and counting mod 2 is NPhard. We give a general collapse theorem for bases of dimension 4 to dimension 2 in the holographic algorithms framework. We also define an extension of holographic algorithms to allow more general support vectors. Finally we give a Basis Folding Theorem showing that in a natural setting the support vectors can be simulated by bases of dimension 2. 1
The Complexity of Planar Boolean #CSP with Complex Weights
"... We prove a complexity dichotomy theorem for symmetric complexweighted Boolean #CSP when the constraint graph of the input must be planar. The problems that are #Phard over general graphs but tractable over planar graphs are precisely those with a holographic reduction to matchgates. This generali ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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We prove a complexity dichotomy theorem for symmetric complexweighted Boolean #CSP when the constraint graph of the input must be planar. The problems that are #Phard over general graphs but tractable over planar graphs are precisely those with a holographic reduction to matchgates. This generalizes a theorem of Cai, Lu, and Xia for the case of real weights. We also obtain a dichotomy theorem for a symmetric arity 4 signature with complex weights in the planar Holant framework, which we use in the proof of our #CSP dichotomy. In particular, we reduce the problem of evaluating the Tutte polynomial of a planar graph at the point (3, 3) to counting the number of Eulerian orientations over planar 4regular graphs to show the latter is #Phard. This strengthens a theorem by Huang and Lu to the planar setting.
On Blockwise Symmetric Signatures for Matchgates
 ELECTRONIC COLLOQUIUM ON COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY, REPORT NO. 19 (2007)
, 2007
"... We give a classification of blockwise symmetric signatures in the theory of matchgate computations. The main proof technique is matchgate identities, a.k.a. useful GrassmannPlücker identities.
..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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We give a classification of blockwise symmetric signatures in the theory of matchgate computations. The main proof technique is matchgate identities, a.k.a. useful GrassmannPlücker identities.
Holographic Reduction, Interpolation and Hardness
"... We prove a dichotomy theorem for a class of counting problems expressible by Boolean signatures. The proof methods are holographic reductions and interpolations. We show that interpolatability provides a universal strategy to prove #Phardness for this class of problems. For these problems whenever ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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We prove a dichotomy theorem for a class of counting problems expressible by Boolean signatures. The proof methods are holographic reductions and interpolations. We show that interpolatability provides a universal strategy to prove #Phardness for this class of problems. For these problems whenever holographic reductions followed by interpolations fail to prove #Phardness, we can show that the problems are actually solvable in polynomial time. 1
Holographic algorithms: . . .
"... Valiant’s theory of holographic algorithms is a novel methodology to achieve exponential speedups in computation. A fundamental parameter in holographic algorithms is the dimension of the linear basis vectors. We completely resolve the problem of the power of higher dimensional bases. We prove that ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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Valiant’s theory of holographic algorithms is a novel methodology to achieve exponential speedups in computation. A fundamental parameter in holographic algorithms is the dimension of the linear basis vectors. We completely resolve the problem of the power of higher dimensional bases. We prove that 2dimensional bases are universal for holographic algorithms.
P VERSUS NP AND GEOMETRY
"... Abstract. I describe three geometric approaches to resolving variants of P v. NP, present several results that illustrate the role of group actions in complexity theory, and make a first step towards completely geometric definitions of complexity classes. 1. ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Abstract. I describe three geometric approaches to resolving variants of P v. NP, present several results that illustrate the role of group actions in complexity theory, and make a first step towards completely geometric definitions of complexity classes. 1.