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Analysis of Shellsort and related algorithms
 ESA ’96: Fourth Annual European Symposium on Algorithms
, 1996
"... This is an abstract of a survey talk on the theoretical and empirical studies that have been done over the past four decades on the Shellsort algorithm and its variants. The discussion includes: upper bounds, including linkages to numbertheoretic properties of the algorithm; lower bounds on Shellso ..."
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This is an abstract of a survey talk on the theoretical and empirical studies that have been done over the past four decades on the Shellsort algorithm and its variants. The discussion includes: upper bounds, including linkages to numbertheoretic properties of the algorithm; lower bounds on Shellsort and Shellsortbased networks; averagecase results; proposed probabilistic sorting networks based on the algorithm; and a list of open problems. 1 Shellsort The basic Shellsort algorithm is among the earliest sorting methods to be discovered (by D. L. Shell in 1959 [36]) and is among the easiest to implement, as exhibited by the following C code for sorting an array a[l],..., a[r]: shellsort(itemType a[], int l, int r) { int i, j, h; itemType v;
Lower Bounds for Shellsort
 In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1997
"... We show lower bounds on the worstcase complexity of Shellsort. In particular, we give a fairly simple proof of an \Omega\Gamma n lg 2 n=(lg lg n) 2 ) lower bound for the size of Shellsort sorting networks, for arbitrary increment sequences. We also show an identical lower bound for the running ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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We show lower bounds on the worstcase complexity of Shellsort. In particular, we give a fairly simple proof of an \Omega\Gamma n lg 2 n=(lg lg n) 2 ) lower bound for the size of Shellsort sorting networks, for arbitrary increment sequences. We also show an identical lower bound for the running time of Shellsort algorithms, again for arbitrary increment sequences. Our lower bounds establish an almost tight tradeoff between the running time of a Shellsort algorithm and the length of the underlying increment sequence. Proposed running head: Lower Bounds for Shellsort. Contact author: Prof. Greg Plaxton, Department of Computer Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 787121188. 1 Introduction Shellsort is a classical sorting algorithm introduced by Shell in 1959 [15]. The algorithm is based on a sequence H = h 0 ; : : : ; hm\Gamma1 of positive integers called an increment sequence. An input file A = A[0]; : : : ; A[n \Gamma 1] of elements is sorted by performing an ...
Randomized Shellsort: A simple oblivious sorting algorithm
 In Proceedings 21st ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA
, 2010
"... In this paper, we describe a randomized Shellsort algorithm. This algorithm is a simple, randomized, dataoblivious version of the Shellsort algorithm that always runs in O(n log n) time and succeeds in sorting any given input permutation with very high probability. Taken together, these properties ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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In this paper, we describe a randomized Shellsort algorithm. This algorithm is a simple, randomized, dataoblivious version of the Shellsort algorithm that always runs in O(n log n) time and succeeds in sorting any given input permutation with very high probability. Taken together, these properties imply applications in the design of new efficient privacypreserving computations based on the secure multiparty computation (SMC) paradigm. In addition, by a trivial conversion of this Monte Carlo algorithm to its Las Vegas equivalent, one gets the first version of Shellsort with a running time that is provably O(n log n) with very high probability. 1
A Lower Bound on the AverageCase Complexity of Shellsort
, 1999
"... We give a general lower bound on the averagecase complexity of Shellsort: the average number of datamovements (and comparisons) made by a ppass Shellsort for any incremental sequence is \Omega\Gamma pn 1+1=p ) for every p. The proof is an example of the use of Kolmogorov complexity (the incompr ..."
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Cited by 9 (5 self)
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We give a general lower bound on the averagecase complexity of Shellsort: the average number of datamovements (and comparisons) made by a ppass Shellsort for any incremental sequence is \Omega\Gamma pn 1+1=p ) for every p. The proof is an example of the use of Kolmogorov complexity (the incompressibility method) in the analysis of algorithms. 1 Introduction The question of a nontrivial general lower bound (or upper bound) on the average complexity of Shellsort (due to D.L. Shell [14]) has been open for about four decades [5, 13]. We present such a lower bound for ppass Shellsort for every p. Shellsort sorts a list of n elements in p passes using a sequence of increments h 1 ; : : : ; h p . In the kth pass the main list is divided in h k separate sublists of length dn=h k e, where the ith sublist consists of the elements at positions j, where j mod h k = i \Gamma 1, of the main list (i = 1; : : : ; h k ). Every sublist is sorted using a straightforward insertion sort. The effi...
On the Performance of WEAKHEAPSORT
, 2000
"... . Dutton #1993# presents a further HEAPSORT variant called WEAKHEAPSORT, which also contains a new data structure for priority queues. The sorting algorithm and the underlying data structure are analyzed showing that WEAKHEAPSORT is the best HEAPSORT variant and that it has a lot of nice propert ..."
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. Dutton #1993# presents a further HEAPSORT variant called WEAKHEAPSORT, which also contains a new data structure for priority queues. The sorting algorithm and the underlying data structure are analyzed showing that WEAKHEAPSORT is the best HEAPSORT variant and that it has a lot of nice properties. It is shown that the worst case number of comparisons is ndlog ne# 2 dlog ne + n #dlog ne#nlog n +0:1nand weak heaps can be generated with n # 1 comparisons. A doubleended priority queue based on weakheaps can be generated in n + dn=2e#2 comparisons. Moreover, examples for the worst and the best case of WEAKHEAPSORT are presented, the number of WeakHeaps on f1;:::;ng is determined, and experiments on the average case are reported. 1
P.: The averagecase complexity of Shellsort
 Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1644
, 1999
"... We prove a general lower bound on the averagecase complexity of Shellsort: the average number of datamovements (and comparisons) made by a ppass Shellsort for 1 1+ any incremental sequence is Ω(pn p) for all p ≤ log n. Using similar arguments, we analyze the averagecase complexity of several oth ..."
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Cited by 6 (2 self)
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We prove a general lower bound on the averagecase complexity of Shellsort: the average number of datamovements (and comparisons) made by a ppass Shellsort for 1 1+ any incremental sequence is Ω(pn p) for all p ≤ log n. Using similar arguments, we analyze the averagecase complexity of several other sorting algorithms. 1
The worst case in Shellsort and related algorithms
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1993
"... Abstract. We show that sorting a sufficiently long list of length N using Shellsort with m increments (not necessarily decreasing) requires at least N 1+c/ √ m comparisons in the worst case, for some constant c> 0. For m ≤ (log N / log log N) 2 we obtain an upper bound of the same form. We also prov ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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Abstract. We show that sorting a sufficiently long list of length N using Shellsort with m increments (not necessarily decreasing) requires at least N 1+c/ √ m comparisons in the worst case, for some constant c> 0. For m ≤ (log N / log log N) 2 we obtain an upper bound of the same form. We also prove that Ω(N(log N / log log N) 2) comparisons are needed regardless of the number of increments. Our approach is general enough to apply to other sorting algorithms, including Shakersort, for which an even stronger result is proved. 1.
A SuperLogarithmic Lower Bound for Hypercubic Sorting Networks
 in Proceedings of the 21st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming
, 1994
"... Hypercubic sorting networks are a class of comparator networks whose structure maps efficiently to the hypercube and any of its bounded degree variants. Recently, ninput hypercubic sorting networks with depth 2 O( p lg lg n) lg n have been discovered. These networks are the only known sorti ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Hypercubic sorting networks are a class of comparator networks whose structure maps efficiently to the hypercube and any of its bounded degree variants. Recently, ninput hypercubic sorting networks with depth 2 O( p lg lg n) lg n have been discovered. These networks are the only known sorting networks of depth o(lg 2 n) that are not based on expanders, and their existence raises the question of whether a depth of O(lg n) can be achieved by any hypercubic sorting network. In this paper, we resolve this question by establishing an\Omega \Gamma lg n lg lg n lg lg lg n \Delta lower bound on the depth of any ninput hypercubic sorting network. Our lower bound can be extended to certain restricted classes of nonoblivious sorting algorithms on hypercubic machines. 1 Introduction A variety of different classes of sorting networks have been described in the literature. Of particular interest here are the socalled AKS network [1] discovered by Ajtai, Koml'os, and Szemer...
An Enhancement of Major Sorting Algorithms
, 2008
"... Abstract: One of the fundamental issues in computer science is ordering a list of items. Although there is a huge number of sorting algorithms, sorting problem has attracted a great deal of research; because efficient sorting is important to optimize the use of other algorithms. This paper presents ..."
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Abstract: One of the fundamental issues in computer science is ordering a list of items. Although there is a huge number of sorting algorithms, sorting problem has attracted a great deal of research; because efficient sorting is important to optimize the use of other algorithms. This paper presents two new sorting algorithms, enhanced selection sort and enhanced bubble Sort algorithms. Enhanced selection sort is an enhancement on selection sort by making it slightly faster and stable sorting algorithm. Enhanced bubble sort is an enhancement on both bubble sort and selection sort algorithms with O(nlgn) complexity instead of O(n 2) for bubble sort and selection sort algorithms. The two new algorithms are analyzed, implemented, tested, and compared and the results were promising.