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Informationtheoretic Limitations of Formal Systems
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1974
"... An attempt is made to apply informationtheoretic computational complexity to metamathematics. The paper studies the number of bits of instructions that must be a given to a computer for it to perform finite and infinite tasks, and also the amount of time that it takes the computer to perform these ..."
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Cited by 45 (7 self)
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An attempt is made to apply informationtheoretic computational complexity to metamathematics. The paper studies the number of bits of instructions that must be a given to a computer for it to perform finite and infinite tasks, and also the amount of time that it takes the computer to perform these tasks. This is applied to measuring the difficulty of proving a given set of theorems, in terms of the number of bits of axioms that are assumed, and the size of the proofs needed to deduce the theorems from the axioms.
Higher Order Logic
 In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Definin ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Defining data types : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.4 Describing processes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.5 Expressing convergence using second order validity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 2.6 Truth definitions: the analytical hierarchy : : : : : : : : 10 2.7 Inductive definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 3 Canonical semantics of higher order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.1 Tarskian semantics of second order logic : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 Function and re
ON THE NUMBER OF STEPS IN PROOFS
, 1989
"... In this paper we prove some results about the complexity of proofs. We consider proofs in Hilbertstyle formal systems such as in [17J. Thus a proof is a sequence of formulas satisfying certain conditions. We caD view the formulas as being strings of symbols; hence the whole proof is a string too. W ..."
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Cited by 17 (2 self)
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In this paper we prove some results about the complexity of proofs. We consider proofs in Hilbertstyle formal systems such as in [17J. Thus a proof is a sequence of formulas satisfying certain conditions. We caD view the formulas as being strings of symbols; hence the whole proof is a string too. We consider the following measures of complexity of proofs: length ( = the number of symbols in the proof), depth ( = the maximal depth of a formula in the proof) and number o! steps ( = the number of formulas in the proof). For a particular formaI system and a given formula A we consider the shortest length of a proof of A, the minimal depth ofa proof of A and the minimal number of steps in a proof of A. The main results are the following: (1) a bound on the depth in terms of the number of steps: Theorem 2.2, (2) a bound on the depth in terms of the length: Theorem 2.3, (3) a bound on the length in terms of the number of steps for restricted systems: Theorem 3.1. These results are applied to obtain several corollaries. In particular we show: (1) a bound on the number of steps in a cutfree proof, (2) some speedup results, (3) bounds on the number of steps in proofs of ParisHarrington sentences. Some paper
A Computational Approach to Reflective MetaReasoning about Languages with Bindings
 In MERLIN ’05: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGPLAN workshop on Mechanized
, 2005
"... We present a foundation for a computational metatheory of languages with bindings implemented in a computeraided formal reasoning environment. Our theory provides the ability to reason abstractly about operators, languages, openended languages, classes of languages, etc. The theory is based on th ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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We present a foundation for a computational metatheory of languages with bindings implemented in a computeraided formal reasoning environment. Our theory provides the ability to reason abstractly about operators, languages, openended languages, classes of languages, etc. The theory is based on the ideas of higherorder abstract syntax, with an appropriate induction principle parameterized over the language (i.e. a set of operators) being used. In our approach, both the bound and free variables are treated uniformly and this uniform treatment extends naturally to variablelength bindings. The implementation is reflective, namely there is a natural mapping between the metalanguage of the theoremprover and the object language of our theory. The object language substitution operation is mapped to the metalanguage substitution and does not need to be defined recursively. Our approach does not require designing a custom type theory; in this paper we describe the implementation of this foundational theory within a generalpurpose type theory. This work is fully implemented in the MetaPRL theorem prover, using the preexisting NuPRLlike MartinL ofstyle computational type theory. Based on this implementation, we lay out an outline for a framework for programming language experimentation and exploration as well as a general reflective reasoning framework. This paper also includes a short survey of the existing approaches to syntactic reflection. 1
On Gödel's Theorems on Lengths of Proofs I: Number of Lines and Speedup for Arithmetics
"... This paper discusses lower bounds for proof length, especially as measured by number of steps (inferences). We give the first publicly known proof of Gödel's claim that there is superrecursive (in fact, unbounded) proof speedup of (i + 1)st order arithmetic over ith order arithmetic, where arithme ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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This paper discusses lower bounds for proof length, especially as measured by number of steps (inferences). We give the first publicly known proof of Gödel's claim that there is superrecursive (in fact, unbounded) proof speedup of (i + 1)st order arithmetic over ith order arithmetic, where arithmetic is formalized in Hilbertstyle calculi with + and as function symbols or with the language of PRA. The same results are established for any weakly schematic formalization of higherorder logic; this allows all tautologies as axioms and allows all generalizations of axioms as axioms.
A Note On Monte Carlo Primality Tests And Algorithmic Information Theory
, 1978
"... Solovay and Strassen, and Miller and Rabin have discovered fast algorithms for testing primality which use coinflipping and whose con1 2 G. J. Chaitin clusions are only probably correct. On the other hand, algorithmic information theory provides a precise mathematical definition of the notion of ra ..."
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Solovay and Strassen, and Miller and Rabin have discovered fast algorithms for testing primality which use coinflipping and whose con1 2 G. J. Chaitin clusions are only probably correct. On the other hand, algorithmic information theory provides a precise mathematical definition of the notion of random or patternless sequence. In this paper we shall describe conditions under which if the sequence of coin tosses in the Solovay Strassen and MillerRabin algorithms is replaced by a sequence of heads and tails that is of maximal algorithmic information content, i.e., has maximal algorithmic randomness, then one obtains an errorfree test for primality. These results are only of theoretical interest, since it is a manifestation of the Godel incompleteness phenomenon that it is impossible to "certify" a sequence to be random by means of a proof, even though most sequences have this property. Thus by using certified random sequences one can in principle, but not in practice, convert proba...
My Fourty Years on His Shoulders
, 2008
"... Gödel's legacy is still very much in evidence. His legacy is overwhelmingly decisive, particularly in the arena of general mathematical and philosophical inquiry. The extent of Gödel's impact in the more restricted domain of mathematical practice is more open to question. In fact, there is an in de ..."
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Gödel's legacy is still very much in evidence. His legacy is overwhelmingly decisive, particularly in the arena of general mathematical and philosophical inquiry. The extent of Gödel's impact in the more restricted domain of mathematical practice is more open to question. In fact, there is an in depth assessment of this impact in Macintyre 2009. But even in this comparatively specialized domain, Gödel's impact is seen to be substantial. As indicated here, particularly in section 12, we believe that the potential impact of Gödel's work 2 on mathematical practice is also overwhelming. However, the full realization of this potential impact will have to wait for some new breakthroughs. We have every confidence that these breakthroughs will materialize. Generally speaking, current mathematical practice has now become very far removed from general mathematical and philosophical inquiry, where Gödel's legacy is most decisively overwhelming. However, there are some signs that some of our most distinguished mathematicians recognize the need for some sort of reconciliation. Here is a quote from Atiyah M. 2008b: "Mathematicians took the role of philosophers, but I want to bring the philosophers back in. I hope someday we will be able to explain mathematics in a philosophical way using philosophical methods". We will not attempt to properly discuss the full impact of Gödel's work and all of the ongoing important research programs that it suggests. This would require a book length manuscript. Indeed, there are several books discussing the Gödel legacy from many points of view, including, for example, (Wang 1987, 1996), (Dawson 2005), and the historically comprehensive five volume set (Gödel
1. General Remarks. 2. The Completeness Theorem. 3. The First Incompleteness Theorem. 4. The Second Incompleteness Theorem.
, 2006
"... several historical points. 1. GENERAL REMARKS Gödel's legacy is still very much in evidence. His legacy is overwhelmingly decisive, particularly in the arena of general mathematical and2 philosophical inquiry. The extent of Gödel's impact in the more restricted domain of mathematical practice is mor ..."
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several historical points. 1. GENERAL REMARKS Gödel's legacy is still very much in evidence. His legacy is overwhelmingly decisive, particularly in the arena of general mathematical and2 philosophical inquiry. The extent of Gödel's impact in the more restricted domain of mathematical practice is more open to question. In fact, there is an in depth assessment of this impact in Macintyre 2009. But even in this comparatively specialized domain, Gödel's impact is seen to be substantial. As indicated here, particularly in section 12, we believe that the potential impact of Gödel's work on mathematical practice is also overwhelming. However, the full realization of this potential impact will have to wait for some new breakthroughs. We have every confidence that these breakthroughs will materialize. Generally speaking, current mathematical practice has now become very far removed from general mathematical and philosophical inquiry, where Gödel's legacy is most decisively overwhelming. However, there are some signs that some of our most distinguished mathematicians recognize the need for some sort of reconciliation. Here is a quote from Atiyah M. 2008b: "Mathematicians took the role of philosophers, but I want to bring the philosophers back in. I hope someday we will be able to explain mathematics in a philosophical way using philosophical methods".3 We will not attempt to properly discuss the full impact of Gödel's work and all of the ongoing important research programs that it suggests. This would require a book length manuscript. Indeed, there are several books discussing the Gödel legacy from many points of view, including, for example, (Wang 1987, 1996), (Dawson 2005), and the historically comprehensive five volume set (Gödel
Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences Prague
"... On the length of proofs of finitistic consistency statements in first order theories t ..."
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On the length of proofs of finitistic consistency statements in first order theories t