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Modelling Social Interaction Attitudes in MultiAgent Systems
, 2001
"... Abstract 2 Most autonomous agents are situated in a social context and need to interact with other agents (both human and artificial) to complete their problem solving objectives. Such agents are usually capable of performing a wide range of actions and engaging in a variety of social interactions. ..."
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Abstract 2 Most autonomous agents are situated in a social context and need to interact with other agents (both human and artificial) to complete their problem solving objectives. Such agents are usually capable of performing a wide range of actions and engaging in a variety of social interactions. Faced with this variety of options, an agent must decide what to do. There are many potential decision making functions that could be employed to make the choice. Each such function will have a different effect on the success of the individual agent and of the overall system in which it is situated. To this end, this thesis examines agents ’ decision making functions to ascertain their likely properties and attributes. A novel framework for characterising social decision making is presented which provides explicit reasoning about the potential benefits of the individual agent, particular subgroups of agents or the overall system. This framework enables multifarious social interaction attitudes to be identified and defined; ranging from the purely selfinterested to the purely altruistic. In particular, however, the focus is on the spectrum of socially responsible agent behaviours in which agents attempt to balance their own needs with those of the overall system. Such behaviour aims to ensure that both the agent and the overall system perform well.
Nonmonotonic Reasoning
 In Proc
, 1993
"... Classical logic is the study of ”safe ” formal reasoning. Western Philosophers developed classical logic over a period of thirtythree centuries after its introduction in the form of syllogistic by Aristotle [1] in the third century B. C. Beginning in the nineteenth century with De Morgan [2] and B ..."
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Classical logic is the study of ”safe ” formal reasoning. Western Philosophers developed classical logic over a period of thirtythree centuries after its introduction in the form of syllogistic by Aristotle [1] in the third century B. C. Beginning in the nineteenth century with De Morgan [2] and Boole [3], responsibility for the development of classical logic moved from the philosophical to the mathematical community.
Undecidability of firstorder intuitionistic and modal logics with two variables
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 2005
"... Abstract. We prove that the twovariable fragment of firstorder intuitionistic logic is undecidable, even without constants and equality. We also show that the twovariable fragment of a quantified modal logic L with expanding firstorder domains is undecidable whenever there is a Kripke frame for L ..."
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Abstract. We prove that the twovariable fragment of firstorder intuitionistic logic is undecidable, even without constants and equality. We also show that the twovariable fragment of a quantified modal logic L with expanding firstorder domains is undecidable whenever there is a Kripke frame for L with a point having infinitely many successors (such are, in particular, the firstorder extensions of practically all standard modal logics like K, K4, GL, S4, S5, K4.1, S4.2, GL.3, etc.). For many quantified modal logics, including those in the standard nomenclature above, even the monadic twovariable fragments turn out to be undecidable. §1. Introduction. Ever since the undecidability of firstorder classical logic became known [5], there has been a continuing interest in establishing the ‘borderline ’ between its decidable and undecidable fragments; see [2] for a detailed exposition. One approach to this classification problem is to consider fragments with finitely many individual variables. The
The history and concept of computability
 in Handbook of Computability Theory
, 1999
"... We consider the informal concept of a “computable ” or “effectively calculable” function on natural numbers and two of the formalisms used to define it, computability” and “(general) recursiveness. ” We consider their origin, exact technical definition, concepts, history, how they became fixed in th ..."
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We consider the informal concept of a “computable ” or “effectively calculable” function on natural numbers and two of the formalisms used to define it, computability” and “(general) recursiveness. ” We consider their origin, exact technical definition, concepts, history, how they became fixed in their present roles, and how
Gödel on computability
"... Around 1950, both Gödel and Turing wrote papers for broader audiences. 1 Gödel drew in his 1951 dramatic philosophical conclusions from the general formulation of his second incompleteness theorem. These conclusions concerned the nature of mathematics and the human mind. The general formulation of t ..."
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Around 1950, both Gödel and Turing wrote papers for broader audiences. 1 Gödel drew in his 1951 dramatic philosophical conclusions from the general formulation of his second incompleteness theorem. These conclusions concerned the nature of mathematics and the human mind. The general formulation of the second theorem was explicitly based on Turing’s 1936 reduction of finite procedures to machine computations. Turing gave in his 1954 an understated analysis of finite procedures in terms of Post production systems. This analysis, prima facie quite different from that given in 1936, served as the basis for an exposition of various unsolvable problems. Turing had addressed issues of mentality and intelligence in contemporaneous essays, the best known of which is of course Computing machinery and intelligence. Gödel’s and Turing’s considerations from this period intersect through their attempt, on the one hand, to analyze finite, mechanical procedures and, on the other hand, to approach mental phenomena in a scientific way. Neuroscience or brain science was an important component of the latter for both: Gödel’s remarks in the Gibbs Lecture as well as in his later conversations with Wang and Turing’s Intelligent Machinery can serve as clear evidence for that. 2 Both men were convinced that some mental processes are not mechanical, in the sense that Turing machines cannot mimic them. For Gödel, such processes were to be found in mathematical experience and he was led to the conclusion that mind is separate from matter. Turing simply noted that for a machine or a brain it is not enough to be converted into a universal (Turing) machine in order to become intelligent: “discipline”, the characteristic
The Satisfiability problem for the SchöenfinkelBernays fragment: Partial Instantiation and Hypergraph Algorithms
 Proceedings of 8th subcommission "Magnetic
, 1994
"... A partial instantiation approach to the solution of the satisfiability problem in the SchoenfinkelBernays fragment of 1 st order logic is presented. It is based on a reduction of the problem to a finite sequence of satisfiability problems in the propositional logic and it improves upon the ori ..."
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A partial instantiation approach to the solution of the satisfiability problem in the SchoenfinkelBernays fragment of 1 st order logic is presented. It is based on a reduction of the problem to a finite sequence of satisfiability problems in the propositional logic and it improves upon the original idea of partial instantiation, as proposed by Jeroslow. In the second part of the paper a new interpretation of the partial instantiation approach in terms of Directed Hypergraphs is proposed and a particular implementation for the Datalog case is described in detail. 1 Introduction. The problem of Logical Inference plays a fundamental role in Decision Sciences and has several applications in fields such as decision support systems, logic circuit design, data bases, and programming languages. Although classical approaches to formalize and solve inference problems have been of symbolic nature, in the last few years many scientists in the Operations Research community have studied ...
Turing Oracle Machines, Online Computing, and Three Displacements in Computability Theory
, 2009
"... ..."
H.: One document to bind them: Combining xml, web services, and the semantic web
 In: World Wide Web Conference. (2003
, 2006
"... We present a paradigm for uniting the diverse strands of XMLbased Web technologies by allowing them to be incorporated within a single document. This overcomes the distinction between programs and data to make XML truly “selfdescribing. ” A proposal for a lightweight yet powerful functional XML vo ..."
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We present a paradigm for uniting the diverse strands of XMLbased Web technologies by allowing them to be incorporated within a single document. This overcomes the distinction between programs and data to make XML truly “selfdescribing. ” A proposal for a lightweight yet powerful functional XML vocabulary called “Semantic fXML ” is detailed, based on the wellunderstood functional programming paradigm and resembling the embedding of Lisp directly in XML. Infosets are made “dynamic, ” since documents can now directly embed local processes or Web Services into their Infoset. An optional typing regime for infosets is provided by Semantic Web ontologies. By regarding Web Services as functions and the Semantic Web as providing types, and tying it all together within a single XML vocabulary, the Web can compute. In this light, the real Web 2.0 can be considered the transformation of the Web from a universal information space to a universal computation space.
Very simple Chaitin machines for concrete AIT
 Fundamenta Informaticae
, 2005
"... Abstract. In 1975, Chaitin introduced his celebrated Omega number, the halting probability of a universal Chaitin machine, a universal Turing machine with a prefixfree domain. The Omega number’s bits are algorithmically random—there is no reason the bits should be the way they are, if we define “re ..."
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Abstract. In 1975, Chaitin introduced his celebrated Omega number, the halting probability of a universal Chaitin machine, a universal Turing machine with a prefixfree domain. The Omega number’s bits are algorithmically random—there is no reason the bits should be the way they are, if we define “reason ” to be a computable explanation smaller than the data itself. Since that time, only two explicit universal Chaitin machines have been proposed, both by Chaitin himself. Concrete algorithmic information theory involves the study of particular universal Turing machines, about which one can state theorems with specific numerical bounds, rather than include terms like O(1). We present several new tiny Chaitin machines (those with a prefixfree domain) suitable for the study of concrete algorithmic information theory. One of the machines, which we call Keraia, is a binary encoding of lambda calculus based on a curried lambda operator. Source code is included in the appendices. We also give an algorithm for restricting the domain of blankendmarker machines to a prefixfree domain over an alphabet that does not include the endmarker; this allows one to take many universal Turing machines and construct universal Chaitin machines from them. 1.