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222
Approximating the permanent
 SIAM J. Computing
, 1989
"... Abstract. A randomised approximation scheme for the permanent of a 01 matrix is presented. The task of estimating a permanent is reduced to that of almost uniformly generating perfect matchings in a graph; the latter is accomplished by simulating a Markov chain whose states are the matchings in the ..."
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Cited by 299 (24 self)
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Abstract. A randomised approximation scheme for the permanent of a 01 matrix is presented. The task of estimating a permanent is reduced to that of almost uniformly generating perfect matchings in a graph; the latter is accomplished by simulating a Markov chain whose states are the matchings in the graph. For a wide class of 01 matrices the approximation scheme is fullypolynomial, i.e., runs in time polynomial in the size of the matrix and a parameter that controls the accuracy of the output. This class includes all dense matrices (those that contain sufficiently many l’s) and almost all sparse matrices in some reasonable probabilistic model for 01 matrices of given density. For the approach sketched above to be computationally efficient, the Markov chain must be rapidly mixing: informally, it must converge in a short time to its stationary distribution. A major portion of the paper is devoted to demonstrating that the matchings chain is rapidly mixing, apparently the first such result for a Markov chain with genuinely complex structure. The techniques used seem to have general applicability, and are applied again in the paper to validate a fullypolynomial randomised approximation scheme for the partition function of an arbitrary monomerdimer system.
Evidence for Invariants in Local Search
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF AAAI97
, 1997
"... It is well known that the performance of a stochastic local search procedure depends upon the setting of its noise parameter, and that the optimal setting varies with the problem distribution. It is therefore desirable to develop general priniciples for tuning the procedures. We present two statisti ..."
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Cited by 183 (10 self)
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It is well known that the performance of a stochastic local search procedure depends upon the setting of its noise parameter, and that the optimal setting varies with the problem distribution. It is therefore desirable to develop general priniciples for tuning the procedures. We present two statistical measures of the local search process that allow one to quickly find the optimal noise settings. These properties are independent of the fine details of the local search strategies, and appear to be relatively independent of the structure of the problem domains. We applied these principles to the problem of evaluating new search heuristics, and discovered two promising new strategies.
On Network Correlated Data Gathering
 IN IEEE INFOCOM
, 2004
"... We consider the problem of correlated data gathering by a network with a sink node and a tree communication structure, where the goal is to minimize the total transmission cost of transporting the information collected by the nodes, to the sink node. Two coding strategies are analyzed: a SlepianWolf ..."
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Cited by 99 (9 self)
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We consider the problem of correlated data gathering by a network with a sink node and a tree communication structure, where the goal is to minimize the total transmission cost of transporting the information collected by the nodes, to the sink node. Two coding strategies are analyzed: a SlepianWolf model where optimal coding is complex and transmission optimization is simple, and a joint entropy coding model with explicit communication where coding is simple and transmission optimization is difficult. This problem requires a joint optimization of the rate allocation at the nodes and of the transmission structure. For the SlepianWolf setting, we derive a closed form solution and an efficient distributed approximation algorithm with a good performance. For the explicit communication case, we prove that building an optimal data gathering tree is NPcomplete and we propose various distributed approximation algorithms.
Unsupervised Texture Segmentation in a Deterministic Annealing Framework
, 1998
"... We present a novel optimization framework for unsupervised texture segmentation that relies on statistical tests as a measure of homogeneity. Texture segmentation is formulated as a data clustering problem based on sparse proximity data. Dissimilarities of pairs of textured regions are computed from ..."
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Cited by 91 (9 self)
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We present a novel optimization framework for unsupervised texture segmentation that relies on statistical tests as a measure of homogeneity. Texture segmentation is formulated as a data clustering problem based on sparse proximity data. Dissimilarities of pairs of textured regions are computed from a multiscale Gabor filter image representation. We discuss and compare a class of clustering objective functions which is systematically derived from invariance principles. As a general optimization framework we propose deterministic annealing based on a meanfield approximation. The canonical way to derive clustering algorithms within this framework as well as an efficient implementation of meanfield annealing and the closely related Gibbs sampler are presented. We apply both annealing variants to Brodatzlike microtexture mixtures and realword images.
VLSI cell placement techniques
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1991
"... VLSI cell placement problem is known to be NP complete. A wide repertoire of heuristic algorithms exists in the literature for efficiently arranging the logic cells on a VLSI chip. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive survey of the various cell placement techniques, with emphasi ..."
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Cited by 76 (0 self)
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VLSI cell placement problem is known to be NP complete. A wide repertoire of heuristic algorithms exists in the literature for efficiently arranging the logic cells on a VLSI chip. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive survey of the various cell placement techniques, with emphasis on standard ce11and macro
Parallel Recombinative Simulated Annealing: A Genetic Algorithm
, 1995
"... This paper introduces and analyzes a parallel method of simulated annealing. Borrowing from genetic algorithms, an effective combination of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms, called parallel recombinative simulated annealing, is developed. This new algorithm strives to retain the desirable ..."
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Cited by 74 (3 self)
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This paper introduces and analyzes a parallel method of simulated annealing. Borrowing from genetic algorithms, an effective combination of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms, called parallel recombinative simulated annealing, is developed. This new algorithm strives to retain the desirable asymptotic convergence properties of simulated annealing, while adding the populations approach and recombinative power of genetic algorithms. The algorithm iterates a population of solutions rather than a single solution, employing a binary recombination operator as well as a unary neighborhood operator. Proofs of global convergence are given for two variations of the algorithm. Convergence behavior is examined, and empirical distributions are compared to Boltzmann distributions. Parallel recombinative simulated annealing is amenable to straightforward implementation on SIMD, MIMD, or sharedmemory machines. The algorithm, implemented on the CM5, is run repeatedly on two deceptive problems...
Semisupervised Learning of Classifiers: Theory, Algorithms and Their Application to HumanComputer Interaction
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2004
"... Automatic classification is one of the basic tasks required in any pattern recognition and human computer interaction application. In this paper we discuss training probabilistic classifiers with labeled and unlabeled data. We provide a new analysis that shows under what conditions unlabeled data ..."
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Cited by 60 (15 self)
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Automatic classification is one of the basic tasks required in any pattern recognition and human computer interaction application. In this paper we discuss training probabilistic classifiers with labeled and unlabeled data. We provide a new analysis that shows under what conditions unlabeled data can be used in learning to improve classification performance. We also show that if the conditions are violated, using unlabeled data can be detrimental to classification performance. We discuss the implications of this analysis to a specific type of probabilistic classifiers, Bayesian networks, and propose a new structure learning algorithm that can utilize unlabeled data to improve classification. Finally, we show how the resulting algorithms are successfully employed in two applications related to humancomputer interaction and pattern recognition; facial expression recognition and face detection.
Stochastic Roadmap Simulation: An efficient Representation and Algorithm for Analyzing Molecular Motion
, 2002
"... Classic molecular motion simulation techniques, such as Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, generate motion pathways one at a time and spend most of their time in the local minima of the energy landscape defined over a molecular conformation space. Their high computational cost prevents them from being ..."
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Cited by 56 (16 self)
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Classic molecular motion simulation techniques, such as Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, generate motion pathways one at a time and spend most of their time in the local minima of the energy landscape defined over a molecular conformation space. Their high computational cost prevents them from being used to compute ensemble properties; properties requiring the analysis of many pathways. This paper introduces Stochastic Roadmap Simulation (SRS) as a new computational approach for exploring the kinetics of molecular motion by simultaneously examining multiple pathways. These pathways are compactly encoded in a graph, which is constructed by sampling a molecular conformation space at random. This computation, which does not trace any particular pathway explicitly, circumvents the localminima problem. Each edge in the graph represents a potential transition of the molecule and is associated with a probability indicating the likelihood of this transition. By viewing the graph as a # Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 + Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 # Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Department of Computer Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore corresponding author. email : latombe@cs.stanford.edu Address: Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Phone: (650) 7230350 Fax: (650) 7251449 # Department of EECS, MIT and Department of HST, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02138 Markov chain, ensemble properties can be efficiently computed over the entire molecular energy landscape.
A Bayesian Approach to Dynamic Contours through Stochastic Sampling and Simulated Annealing
 IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1994
"... In many applications of image analysis, simply connected objects are to be located in noisy images. During the last 56 years active contour models have become popular for finding the contours of such objects. Connected to these models are iterative algorithms for finding the minimizing energy curve ..."
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Cited by 56 (1 self)
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In many applications of image analysis, simply connected objects are to be located in noisy images. During the last 56 years active contour models have become popular for finding the contours of such objects. Connected to these models are iterative algorithms for finding the minimizing energy curves making the curves behave dynamically through the iterations. These approaches do however have several disadvantages. The numerical algorithms that are in use constraint the models that can be used. Furthermore, in many cases only local minima can be achieved.