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280
QSplat: A Multiresolution Point Rendering System for Large Meshes
, 2000
"... Advances in 3D scanning technologies have enabled the practical creation of meshes with hundreds of millions of polygons. Traditional algorithms for display, simplification, and progressive transmission of meshes are impractical for data sets of this size. We describe a system for representing and p ..."
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Cited by 500 (8 self)
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Advances in 3D scanning technologies have enabled the practical creation of meshes with hundreds of millions of polygons. Traditional algorithms for display, simplification, and progressive transmission of meshes are impractical for data sets of this size. We describe a system for representing and progressively displaying these meshes that combines a multiresolution hierarchy based on bounding spheres with a rendering system based on points. A single data structure is used for view frustum culling, backface culling, levelofdetail selection, and rendering. The representation is compact and can be computed quickly, making it suitable for large data sets. Our implementation, written for use in a largescale 3D digitization project, launches quickly, maintains a usersettable interactive frame rate regardless of object complexity or camera position, yields reasonable image quality during motion, and refines progressively when idle to a high final image quality. We have demonstrated the system on scanned models containing hundreds of millions of samples.
A New VoronoiBased Surface Reconstruction Algorithm
, 2002
"... We describe our experience with a new algorithm for the reconstruction of surfaces from unorganized sample points in R³. The algorithm is the first for this problem with provable guarantees. Given a “good sample” from a smooth surface, the output is guaranteed to be topologically correct and converg ..."
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Cited by 422 (9 self)
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We describe our experience with a new algorithm for the reconstruction of surfaces from unorganized sample points in R³. The algorithm is the first for this problem with provable guarantees. Given a “good sample” from a smooth surface, the output is guaranteed to be topologically correct and convergent to the original surface as the sampling density increases. The definition of a good sample is itself interesting: the required sampling density varies locally, rigorously capturing the intuitive notion that featureless areas can be reconstructed from fewer samples. The output mesh interpolates, rather than approximates, the input points. Our algorithm is based on the threedimensional Voronoi diagram. Given a good program for this fundamental subroutine, the algorithm is quite easy to implement.
Geometry images
 IN PROC. 29TH SIGGRAPH
, 2002
"... Surface geometry is often modeled with irregular triangle meshes. The process of remeshing refers to approximating such geometry using a mesh with (semi)regular connectivity, which has advantages for many graphics applications. However, current techniques for remeshing arbitrary surfaces create onl ..."
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Cited by 349 (25 self)
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Surface geometry is often modeled with irregular triangle meshes. The process of remeshing refers to approximating such geometry using a mesh with (semi)regular connectivity, which has advantages for many graphics applications. However, current techniques for remeshing arbitrary surfaces create only semiregular meshes. The original mesh is typically decomposed into a set of disklike charts, onto which the geometry is parametrized and sampled. In this paper, we propose to remesh an arbitrary surface onto a completely regular structure we call a geometry image. It captures geometry as a simple 2D array of quantized points. Surface signals like normals and colors are stored in similar 2D arrays using the same implicit surface parametrization — texture coordinates are absent. To create a geometry image, we cut an arbitrary mesh along a network of edge paths, and parametrize the resulting single chart onto a square. Geometry images can be encoded using traditional image compression algorithms, such as waveletbased coders.
Edgebreaker: Connectivity compression for triangle meshes
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1999
"... Edgebreaker is a simple scheme for compressing the triangle/vertex incidence graphs (sometimes called connectivity or topology) of threedimensional triangle meshes. Edgebreaker improves upon the worst case storage required by previously reported schemes, most of which require O(nlogn) bits to store ..."
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Cited by 303 (25 self)
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Edgebreaker is a simple scheme for compressing the triangle/vertex incidence graphs (sometimes called connectivity or topology) of threedimensional triangle meshes. Edgebreaker improves upon the worst case storage required by previously reported schemes, most of which require O(nlogn) bits to store the incidence graph of a mesh of n triangles. Edgebreaker requires only 2n bits or less for simple meshes and can also support fully general meshes by using additional storage per handle and hole. Edgebreaker’s compression and decompression processes perform the same traversal of the mesh from one triangle to an adjacent one. At each stage, compression produces an opcode describing the topological relation between the current triangle and the boundary of the remaining part of the mesh. Decompression uses these opcodes to reconstruct the entire incidence graph. Because Edgebreaker’s compression and decompression are independent of the vertex locations, they may be combined with a variety of vertexcompressing techniques that exploit topological information about the mesh to better estimate vertex locations. Edgebreaker may be used to compress the connectivity of an entire mesh bounding a 3D polyhedron or the connectivity of a triangulated surface patch whose boundary needs not be encoded. Its superior compression capabilities, the simplicity of its implementation, and its versatility make Edgebreaker particularly suitable for the emerging 3D data exchange standards for interactive graphic applications. The paper also offers a comparative survey of the rapidly growing field of geometric compression.
Progressive Geometry Compression
, 2000
"... We propose a new progressive compression scheme for arbitrary topology, highly detailed and densely sampled meshes arising from geometry scanning. We observe that meshes consist of three distinct components: geometry, parameter, and connectivity information. The latter two do not contribute to the r ..."
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Cited by 244 (16 self)
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We propose a new progressive compression scheme for arbitrary topology, highly detailed and densely sampled meshes arising from geometry scanning. We observe that meshes consist of three distinct components: geometry, parameter, and connectivity information. The latter two do not contribute to the reduction of error in a compression setting. Using semiregular meshes, parameter and connectivity information can be virtually eliminated. Coupled with semiregular wavelet transforms, zerotree coding, and subdivision based reconstruction we see improvements in error by a factor four (12dB) compared to other progressive coding schemes. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling  hierarchy and geometric transformations; G.1.2 [Numerical Analysis]: Approximation  approximation of surfaces and contours, wavelets and fractals; I.4.2 [Image Processing and Computer Vision]: Compression (Coding)  Approximate methods Additional K...
Spectral Compression of Mesh Geometry
, 2000
"... We show how spectral methods may be applied to 3D mesh data to obtain compact representations. This is achieved by projecting the mesh geometry onto an orthonormal basis derived from the mesh topology. To reduce complexity, the mesh is partitioned into a number of balanced submeshes with minimal int ..."
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Cited by 238 (7 self)
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We show how spectral methods may be applied to 3D mesh data to obtain compact representations. This is achieved by projecting the mesh geometry onto an orthonormal basis derived from the mesh topology. To reduce complexity, the mesh is partitioned into a number of balanced submeshes with minimal interaction, each of which are compressed independently. Our methods may be used for compression and progressive transmission of 3D content, and are shown to be vastly superior to existing methods using spatial techniques, if slight loss can be tolerated.
A Comparison of Mesh Simplification Algorithms
 Computers & Graphics
, 1997
"... In many applications the need for an accurate simplification of surface meshes is becoming more and more urgent. This need is not only due to rendering speed reasons, but also to allow fast transmission of 3D models in networkbased applications. Many different approaches and algorithms for mesh sim ..."
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Cited by 166 (8 self)
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In many applications the need for an accurate simplification of surface meshes is becoming more and more urgent. This need is not only due to rendering speed reasons, but also to allow fast transmission of 3D models in networkbased applications. Many different approaches and algorithms for mesh simplification have been proposed in the last few years. We present a survey and a characterization of the fundamental methods. Moreover, the results of an empirical comparison of the simplification codes available in the public domain are discussed. Five implementations, chosen to give a wide spectrum of different topologypreserving methods, were run on a set of sample surfaces. We compared empirical computational complexities and the approximation accuracy of the resulting output meshes. 1 Introduction Triangles are the most popular drawing primitive. They are managed by all graphics libraries and hardware subsystems, and triangular meshes are thus very common in computer graphics. Very c...
Displaced subdivision surfaces
 Siggraph 2000, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 85–94. ACM Press / ACM SIGGRAPH
, 2000
"... In this paper we introduce a new surface representation, the displaced subdivision surface. It represents a detailed surface model as a scalarvalued displacement over a smooth domain surface. Our representation defines both the domain surface and the displacement function using a unified subdivisio ..."
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Cited by 158 (2 self)
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In this paper we introduce a new surface representation, the displaced subdivision surface. It represents a detailed surface model as a scalarvalued displacement over a smooth domain surface. Our representation defines both the domain surface and the displacement function using a unified subdivision framework, allowing for simple and efficient evaluation of analytic surface properties. We present a simple, automatic scheme for converting detailed geometric models into such a representation. The challenge in this conversion process is to find a simple subdivision surface that still faithfully expresses the detailed model as its offset. We demonstrate that displaced subdivision surfaces offer a number of benefits, including geometry compression, editing, animation, scalability, and adaptive rendering. In particular, the encoding of fine detail as a scalar function makes the representation extremely compact. Additional Keywords: geometry compression, multiresolution geometry, displacement maps, bump maps, multiresolution editing, animation.
A Developer's Survey of Polygonal Simplification Algorithms
 IEEE COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND APPLICATIONS
, 2001
"... Polygonal simplification, a.k.a. level of detail, is an important tool for anyone doing interactive rendering, but how is a developer to choose among the dozens of published algorithms? This article surveys the field from a developer's point of view, attempting to identify the issues in picking ..."
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Cited by 154 (2 self)
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Polygonal simplification, a.k.a. level of detail, is an important tool for anyone doing interactive rendering, but how is a developer to choose among the dozens of published algorithms? This article surveys the field from a developer's point of view, attempting to identify the issues in picking an algorithm, relate the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, and describe a number of published algorithms as examples.
Multiresolution shape deformations for meshes with dynamic connectivity
 In Computer Graphics Forum (Proc. Eurographics 2000
"... Multiresolution shape representation is a very effective way to decompose surface geometry into several levels of detail. Geometric modeling with such representations enables flexible modifications of the global shape while preserving the detail information. Many schemes for modeling with multiresol ..."
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Cited by 92 (10 self)
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Multiresolution shape representation is a very effective way to decompose surface geometry into several levels of detail. Geometric modeling with such representations enables flexible modifications of the global shape while preserving the detail information. Many schemes for modeling with multiresolution decompositions based on splines, polygonal meshes and subdivision surfaces have been proposed recently. In this paper we modify the classical concept of multiresolution representation by no longer requiring a global hierarchical structure that links the different levels of detail. Instead we represent the detail information implicitly by the geometric difference between independent meshes. The detail function is evaluated by shooting rays in normal direction from one surface to the other without assuming a consistent tesselation. In the context of multiresolution shape deformation, we propose a dynamic mesh representation which adapts the connectivity during the modification in order to maintain a prescribed mesh quality. Combining the two techniques leads to an efficient mechanism which enables extreme deformations of the global shape while preventing the mesh from degenerating. During the deformation, the detail is reconstructed in a natural and robust way. The key to the intuitive detail preservation is a transformation map which associates points on the original and the modified geometry with minimum distortion. We show several examples which demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach including the editing of multiresolution models and models with texture. 1.