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1,124
Neural Networks and Statistical Models
, 1994
"... There has been much publicity about the ability of artificial neural networks to learn and generalize. In fact, the most commonly used artificial neural networks, called multilayer perceptrons, are nothing more than nonlinear regression and discriminant models that can be implemented with standard s ..."
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Cited by 114 (1 self)
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There has been much publicity about the ability of artificial neural networks to learn and generalize. In fact, the most commonly used artificial neural networks, called multilayer perceptrons, are nothing more than nonlinear regression and discriminant models that can be implemented with standard statistical software. This paper explains what neural networks are, translates neural network jargon into statistical jargon, and shows the relationships between neural networks and statistical models such as generalized linear models, maximum redundancy analysis, projection pursuit, and cluster analysis.
An Empirical Comparison of Four Initialization Methods for the KMeans Algorithm
, 1999
"... In this paper, we aim to compare empirically four initialization methods for the KMeans algorithm: random, Forgy, MacQueen and Kaufman. Although this algorithm is known for its robustness, it is widely reported in literature that its performance depends upon two key points: initial clustering an ..."
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Cited by 106 (0 self)
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In this paper, we aim to compare empirically four initialization methods for the KMeans algorithm: random, Forgy, MacQueen and Kaufman. Although this algorithm is known for its robustness, it is widely reported in literature that its performance depends upon two key points: initial clustering and instance order. We conduct a series of experiments to draw up (in terms of mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation) the probability distribution of the squareerror values of the final clusters returned by the KMeans algorithm independently on any initial clustering and on any instance order when each of the four initialization methods is used. The results of our experiments illustrate that the random and the Kaufman initialization methods outperform the rest of the compared methods as they make the KMeans more effective and more independent on initial clustering and on instance order. In addition, we compare the convergence speed of the KMeans algorithm when using each o...
Unsupervised Learning from Dyadic Data
, 1998
"... Dyadic data refers to a domain with two finite sets of objects in which observations are made for dyads, i.e., pairs with one element from either set. This includes event cooccurrences, histogram data, and single stimulus preference data as special cases. Dyadic data arises naturally in many applic ..."
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Cited by 105 (9 self)
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Dyadic data refers to a domain with two finite sets of objects in which observations are made for dyads, i.e., pairs with one element from either set. This includes event cooccurrences, histogram data, and single stimulus preference data as special cases. Dyadic data arises naturally in many applications ranging from computational linguistics and information retrieval to preference analysis and computer vision. In this paper, we present a systematic, domainindependent framework for unsupervised learning from dyadic data by statistical mixture models. Our approach covers different models with flat and hierarchical latent class structures and unifies probabilistic modeling and structure discovery. Mixture models provide both, a parsimonious yet flexible parameterization of probability distributions with good generalization performance on sparse data, as well as structural information about datainherent grouping structure. We propose an annealed version of the standard Expectation Maximization algorithm for model fitting which is empirically evaluated on a variety of data sets from different domains.
Obstacle Detection and Terrain Classification for Autonomous Offroad Navigation
 Autonomous Robots
, 2004
"... Autonomous navigation in crosscountry environments presents many new challenges with respect to more traditional, urban environments. The lack of highly structured components in the scene complicates the design of even basic functionalities such as obstacle detection. In addition to the geometric d ..."
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Cited by 86 (3 self)
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Autonomous navigation in crosscountry environments presents many new challenges with respect to more traditional, urban environments. The lack of highly structured components in the scene complicates the design of even basic functionalities such as obstacle detection. In addition to the geometric description of the scene, terrain typing is also an important component of the perceptual system. Recognizing the different classes of terrain and obstacles enables the path planner to choose the most efficient route toward the desired goal.
Modeling Score Distributions for Combining the Outputs of Search Engines
, 2001
"... In this paper the score distributions of a number of text search engines are modeled. It is shown empirically that the score distributions on a per query basis may be fitted using an exponential distribution for the set of nonrelevant documents and a normal distribution for the set of relevant docu ..."
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Cited by 86 (4 self)
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In this paper the score distributions of a number of text search engines are modeled. It is shown empirically that the score distributions on a per query basis may be fitted using an exponential distribution for the set of nonrelevant documents and a normal distribution for the set of relevant documents. Experiments show that this model fits TREC3 and TREC4 data for not only probabilistic search engines like INQUERY but also vector space search engines like SMART for English. We have also used this model to fit the output of other search engines like LSI search engines and search engines indexing other languages like Chinese. It is then shown that given a query for which relevance information is not available, a mixture model consisting of an exponential and a normal distribution can be fitted to the score distribution. These distributions can be used to map the scores of a search engine to probabilities. We also discuss how the shape of the score distributions arise given certain assumptions about word distributions in documents. We hypothesize that all 'good' text search engines operating on any language have similar characteristics. This model has many possible applications. For example, the outputs of different search engines can be combined by averaging the probabilities (optimal if the search engines are independent) or by using the probabilities to select the best engine for each query. Results show that the technique performs as well as the best current combination techniques. This material is based on work supported in part by the National Science Foundation, Library of Congress and Department of Commerce under cooperative agreement number EEC9209623, in part by the National Science Foundation under grant numbers IRI9619117 and IIS9909073, in part by N...
Using Bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles. Monthly Weather Review 133
, 2005
"... Ensembles used for probabilistic weather forecasting often exhibit a spreaderror correlation, but they tend to be underdispersive. This paper proposes a statistical method for postprocessing ensembles based on Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which is a standard method for combining predictive distr ..."
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Cited by 82 (30 self)
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Ensembles used for probabilistic weather forecasting often exhibit a spreaderror correlation, but they tend to be underdispersive. This paper proposes a statistical method for postprocessing ensembles based on Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which is a standard method for combining predictive distributions from different sources. The BMA predictive probability density function (PDF) of any quantity of interest is a weighted average of PDFs centered on the individual biascorrected forecasts, where the weights are equal to posterior probabilities of the models generating the forecasts and reflect the models ’ relative contributions to predictive skill over the training period. The BMA weights can be used to assess the usefulness of ensemble members, and this can be used as a basis for selecting ensemble members; this can be useful given the cost of running large ensembles. The BMA PDF can be represented as an unweighted ensemble of any desired size, by simulating from the BMA predictive distribution. The BMA predictive variance can be decomposed into two components, one corresponding to the betweenforecast variability, and the second to the withinforecast variability. Predictive PDFs or intervals based solely on the ensemble spread incorporate the first component but not the second. Thus BMA provides a theoretical explanation of the tendency of ensembles to exhibit a spreaderror correlation but yet
Latent variable analysis: Growth mixture modeling and related techniques for longitudinal data
, 2004
"... This chapter gives an overview of recent advances in latent variable analysis. Emphasis is placed on the strength of modeling obtained by using a flexible combination of continuous and categorical latent variables. ..."
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Cited by 79 (14 self)
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This chapter gives an overview of recent advances in latent variable analysis. Emphasis is placed on the strength of modeling obtained by using a flexible combination of continuous and categorical latent variables.
The Global KMeans Clustering Algorithm
, 2003
"... We present the global kmeans algorithm which is an incremental approach to clustering that dynamically adds one cluster center at a time through a deterministic global search procedure consisting of N (with N being the size of the data set) executions of the kmeans algorithm from suitable initial ..."
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Cited by 71 (5 self)
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We present the global kmeans algorithm which is an incremental approach to clustering that dynamically adds one cluster center at a time through a deterministic global search procedure consisting of N (with N being the size of the data set) executions of the kmeans algorithm from suitable initial positions. We also propose modifications of the method to reduce the computational load without significantly affecting solution quality. The proposed clustering methods are tested on wellknown data sets and they compare favorably to the kmeans algorithm with random restarts.
Annealed Competition of Experts for a Segmentation and Classification of Switching Dynamics
, 1996
"... We present a method for the unsupervised segmentation of data streams originating from different unknown sources which alternate in time. We use an architecture consisting of competing neural networks. Memory is included in order to resolve ambiguities of inputoutput relations. In order to obtain m ..."
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Cited by 71 (21 self)
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We present a method for the unsupervised segmentation of data streams originating from different unknown sources which alternate in time. We use an architecture consisting of competing neural networks. Memory is included in order to resolve ambiguities of inputoutput relations. In order to obtain maximal specialization, the competition is adiabatically increased during training. Our method achieves almost perfect identification and segmentation in the case of switching chaotic dynamics where input manifolds overlap and inputoutput relations are ambiguous. Only a small dataset is needed for the training proceedure. Applications to time series from complex systems demonstrate the potential relevance of our approach for time series analysis and shortterm prediction. 1 Introduction Neural networks provide frameworks for the representation of relations present in data. Especially in the fields of classification and time series prediction, neural networks Corresponding author, email:k...
Graphical models and automatic speech recognition
 Mathematical Foundations of Speech and Language Processing
, 2003
"... Graphical models provide a promising paradigm to study both existing and novel techniques for automatic speech recognition. This paper first provides a brief overview of graphical models and their uses as statistical models. It is then shown that the statistical assumptions behind many pattern recog ..."
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Cited by 69 (13 self)
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Graphical models provide a promising paradigm to study both existing and novel techniques for automatic speech recognition. This paper first provides a brief overview of graphical models and their uses as statistical models. It is then shown that the statistical assumptions behind many pattern recognition techniques commonly used as part of a speech recognition system can be described by a graph – this includes Gaussian distributions, mixture models, decision trees, factor analysis, principle component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and hidden Markov models. Moreover, this paper shows that many advanced models for speech recognition and language processing can also be simply described by a graph, including many at the acoustic, pronunciation, and languagemodeling levels. A number of speech recognition techniques born directly out of the graphicalmodels paradigm are also surveyed. Additionally, this paper includes a novel graphical analysis regarding why derivative (or delta) features improve hidden Markov modelbased speech recognition by improving structural discriminability. It also includes an example where a graph can be used to represent language model smoothing constraints. As will be seen, the space of models describable by a graph is quite large. A thorough exploration of this space should yield techniques that ultimately will supersede the hidden Markov model.