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68
Constraints over lambdastructures in semantic underspecification
 In Proc. of COLING/ACL
, 1998
"... niehren0ps, unisb, de We introduce a firstorder language for semantic underspecification that we call Constraint Language for LambdaStructures (CLLS). A Astructure can be considered as a Aterm up to consistent renaming of bound variables (aequality); a constraint of CLLS is an underspecified ..."
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Cited by 43 (16 self)
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niehren0ps, unisb, de We introduce a firstorder language for semantic underspecification that we call Constraint Language for LambdaStructures (CLLS). A Astructure can be considered as a Aterm up to consistent renaming of bound variables (aequality); a constraint of CLLS is an underspecified description of a Astructure. CLLS solves a capturing problem omnipresent in underspecified scope representations. CLLS features constraints for dominance, lambda binding, parallelism, and anaphoric links. Based on CLLS we present a simple, integrated, amt underspecified treatment of scope, parallelism, and anaphora. 1
Basic Concepts of Lexical Resource Semantics
 THE SERIES OF THE KURT GÖDEL SOCIETY
, 2003
"... ..."
On Equality Upto Constraints over Finite Trees, Context Unification, and OneStep Rewriting
"... We introduce equality upto constraints over finite trees and investigate their expressiveness. Equality upto constraints subsume equality constraints, subtree constraints, and onestep rewriting constraints. ..."
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Cited by 27 (7 self)
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We introduce equality upto constraints over finite trees and investigate their expressiveness. Equality upto constraints subsume equality constraints, subtree constraints, and onestep rewriting constraints.
A Uniform Approach to Underspecification and Parallelism
 In Proceedings ACL'97
, 1997
"... We propose a unified flamework in which to treat semantic underspecification and parallelism phenomena in discourse. The framework employs a constraint language that can express equality and subtree relations between finite trees. In addition, our constraint language can express the equality upto r ..."
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Cited by 27 (9 self)
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We propose a unified flamework in which to treat semantic underspecification and parallelism phenomena in discourse. The framework employs a constraint language that can express equality and subtree relations between finite trees. In addition, our constraint language can express the equality upto relation over trees which captures parallelism between them. The constraints are solved by context unification. We demonstrate the use of our framework at the examples of quantifier scope, ellipsis, and their interaction. 1 I
HigherOrder Coloured Unification and Natural Language Semantics
, 1996
"... In this paper, we show that HigherOrder Coloured Unification  a form of unification developed for automated theorem proving  provides a general theory for modeling the interface between the interpretation process and other sources of linguistic, non semantic information. In particular, it prov ..."
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Cited by 24 (14 self)
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In this paper, we show that HigherOrder Coloured Unification  a form of unification developed for automated theorem proving  provides a general theory for modeling the interface between the interpretation process and other sources of linguistic, non semantic information. In particular, it provides the general theory for the Primary Occurrence Restriction which (Dalrymple et al., 1991)'s analysis called for. 1 Introduction It is well known that HigherOrder Unification (HOU) can be used to construct the semantics of Natural Language: (Dalrymple et al., 1991)  henceforth, DSP  show that it allows a treatment of VP Ellipsis which successfully captures the interaction of VPE with quantification and nominal anaphora; (Pulman, 1995; Gardent and Kohlhase, 1996) use HOU to model the interpretation of focus and its interaction with focus sensitive operators, adverbial quantifiers and second occurrence expressions; (Gardent et al., 1996) shows that HOU yields a simple but precise ...
Ontologically Promiscuous Flat Logical Forms for NLP
, 2000
"... In this paper a flat notation for logical forms is described. This notation allows the logical forms to be easy to build, easy to work with, and able to deal with ambiguity by underspecification. The main mechanism to convert a logical form into the corresponding flat form is the reification of ..."
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Cited by 15 (8 self)
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In this paper a flat notation for logical forms is described. This notation allows the logical forms to be easy to build, easy to work with, and able to deal with ambiguity by underspecification. The main mechanism to convert a logical form into the corresponding flat form is the reification of all the predicates and operators used in an otherwise nested expression. The resulting flat logical forms are convenient for natural language processing applications that require the use of partial logical forms. In particular, it is shown how partial logical forms (encoded in flat notation) can be used to perform answer extraction.
Underspecified Semantics
, 1999
"... Ambiguities in natural language can multiply so fast that no person or machine can be expected to process a text of even moderate length by enumerating all possible disambiguations. A sentence containing $n$ scope bearing elements which are freely permutable will have $n!$ readings, if there are no ..."
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Cited by 14 (8 self)
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Ambiguities in natural language can multiply so fast that no person or machine can be expected to process a text of even moderate length by enumerating all possible disambiguations. A sentence containing $n$ scope bearing elements which are freely permutable will have $n!$ readings, if there are no other, say lexical or syntactic, sources of ambiguity. A series of $m$ such sentences would lead to $(n!)^m$ possibilities. Some alternative scopings may boil down to the same reading. The relative order in which we scope two existentially quantified noun phrases, for example, will not matter if no other material intervenes. But all in all the growth of possibilities will be so fast that generating readings first and testing their acceptability afterwards will not be feasible.
Ambiguity and Reasoning
, 1995
"... In this paper, reasoning with ambiguous representations is explored in a formal way, with ambiguities at the level of propositions in propositional logic and predicate logic, and ambiguous representations of scopings in predicate logic as the main examples. First a version of propositional logic wit ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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In this paper, reasoning with ambiguous representations is explored in a formal way, with ambiguities at the level of propositions in propositional logic and predicate logic, and ambiguous representations of scopings in predicate logic as the main examples. First a version of propositional logic with propositional ambiguities is presented and a sequent axiomatization for it is given. This is then extended to predicate logic. Next, predicate logic with scope ambiguities is introduced and discussed, and again a sequent calculus for it is proposed. The conclusion connects the results to natural language semantics, and briefly compares them with existing logics of ambiguity. An appendix gives completeness proofs for our versions of ambiguous propositional and predicate logic. AMS Subject Classification (1991): 03B65, 03B80, 68S05, 68T30, 92K20. CR Subject Classification (1991): F.3.1, F.3.2, I.2.1, I.2.4, I.2.7. Keyword and Phrases: Semantics of Natural Language, Reasoning with Underspec...
Ambiguity Preserving Machine Translation using Packed Representations
 In COLINGACL'98
, 1998
"... In this paper we present an ambiguity preserving translation approach which transfers ambiguous LFG fstructure representations. It is based on packed fstructure representations which are the result of potentially ambiguous utterances. If the ambiguities between source and target language can be ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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In this paper we present an ambiguity preserving translation approach which transfers ambiguous LFG fstructure representations. It is based on packed fstructure representations which are the result of potentially ambiguous utterances. If the ambiguities between source and target language can be preserved, no unpacking during transfer is necessary and the generator may produce utterances which maximally cover the underlying ambiguities. We convert the packed fstructure descriptions into a flat set of prolog terms which consist of predicates, their predicate argument structure and additional attributevalue information. Ambiguity is expressed via local disjunctions. The flat representations facilitate the application of a ShakeandBake like transfer approach extended to deal with packed ambiguities. 1
Pure Dominance Constraints
, 2002
"... We present an efficient algorithm that checks the satisfiability of pure dominance constraints, which is a tree description language contained in several constraint languages studied in computational linguistics. Pure dominance constraints partially describe unlabeled rooted trees. For arbitrary pai ..."
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Cited by 11 (9 self)
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We present an efficient algorithm that checks the satisfiability of pure dominance constraints, which is a tree description language contained in several constraint languages studied in computational linguistics. Pure dominance constraints partially describe unlabeled rooted trees. For arbitrary pairs of nodes they specify sets of admissible relative positions in a tree. The task is to find a tree structure satisfying these constraints. Our algorithm constructs such a solution in time O(m^2) where m is the number of constraints. This solves an essential part of an open problem posed by Cornell.