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31
Snakes: Active contour models
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER VISION
, 1988
"... A snake is an energyminimizing spline guided by external constraint forces and influenced by image forces that pull it toward features such as lines and edges. Snakes are active contour models: they lock onto nearby edges, localizing them accurately. Scalespace continuation can be used to enlarge ..."
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Cited by 3084 (16 self)
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A snake is an energyminimizing spline guided by external constraint forces and influenced by image forces that pull it toward features such as lines and edges. Snakes are active contour models: they lock onto nearby edges, localizing them accurately. Scalespace continuation can be used to enlarge the capture region surrounding a feature. Snakes provide a unified account of a number of visual problems, including detection of edges, lines, and subjective contours; motion tracking; and stereo matching. We have used snakes successfully for interactive interpretation, in which userimposed constraint forces guide the snake near features of interest.
Gaussian Networks for Direct Adaptive Control
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 1991
"... A direct adaptive tracking control architecture is proposed and evaluated for a class of continuous time nonlinear dynamic systems for which an explicit linear parameterization of the uncertainty in the dynamics is either unknown or impossible. The architecture employs a network of gaussian radial ..."
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Cited by 133 (8 self)
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A direct adaptive tracking control architecture is proposed and evaluated for a class of continuous time nonlinear dynamic systems for which an explicit linear parameterization of the uncertainty in the dynamics is either unknown or impossible. The architecture employs a network of gaussian radial basis functions to adaptively compensate for the plant nonlinearities. Under mild assumptions about the degree of smoothness exhibited by the nonlinear functions, the algorithm is proven to be globally stable, with tracking errors converging to a neighborhood of zero. A constructive procedure is detailed, which directly translates the assumed smoothness properties of the nonlinearities involved into a specification of the network required to represent the plant to a chosen degree of accuracy. A stable weight adjustment mechanism is then determined using Lyapunov theory. The network construction and performance of the resulting controller are illustrated through simulations with example syst...
The variational approach to shape from shading
 Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing
, 1986
"... We develop a systematic approach to the discovery of parallel iterative schemes for solving the shapefromshading problem on a grid. A standard procedure for finding such schemes is outlined, and subsequently used to derive several new ones. The shapefromshading problem is known to be mathematica ..."
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Cited by 111 (1 self)
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We develop a systematic approach to the discovery of parallel iterative schemes for solving the shapefromshading problem on a grid. A standard procedure for finding such schemes is outlined, and subsequently used to derive several new ones. The shapefromshading problem is known to be mathematically equivalent to a nonlinear firstorder partial differential equation in surface elevation. To avoid the problems inherent in methods used to solve such equations, we follow previous work in reformulating the problem as one of finding a surface orientation field that minimizes the integral of the brightness error. The calculus of variations is then employed to derive the appropriate Euler equations on which iterative schemes can be based. The problem of minimizing the integral of the brightness error term is ill posed, since it has an infinite number of solutions in terms of surface orientation fields. A previous method used a regularization technique to overcome this difficulty. An extra term was added to the integral to obtain an approximation to a solution that was as smooth as possible. We point out here that surface orientation has to obey an integrability constraint if it is to correspond to an underlying smooth surface. Regularization methods do not guarantee that the surface orientation recovered satisfies this constraint. see also "Shape from Shading" MIT Press.
Specialization of Perceptual Processes
, 1994
"... In this report, I discuss the use of vision to support concrete, everyday activity. I will argue that a variety of interesting tasks can be solved using simple and inexpensive vision systems. I will provide a number of working examples in the form of a stateoftheart mobile robot, Polly, which use ..."
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Cited by 88 (6 self)
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In this report, I discuss the use of vision to support concrete, everyday activity. I will argue that a variety of interesting tasks can be solved using simple and inexpensive vision systems. I will provide a number of working examples in the form of a stateoftheart mobile robot, Polly, which uses vision to give primitive tours of the seventh floor of the MIT AI Laboratory. By current standards, the robot has a broad behavioral repertoire and is both simple and inexpensive (the complete robot was built for less than $20,000 using commercial boardlevel components). The approach I will use will be to treat the structure of the agent's activity its task and environmentas positive resources for the vision system designer. By performing a careful analysis of task and environment, the designer can determine a broad space of mechanisms which can perform the desired activity. My principal thesis is that for a broad range of activities, the space of applicable mechanisms will be broad...
Deformable contours: Modeling and extraction
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1995
"... AbstractThis paper considers the problem of modeling and extracting arbitrary deformable contours from noisy images. We propose a global contour model based on a stable and regenerative shape matrix, which is invariant and unique under rigid motions. Combined with Markov random field to model local ..."
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Cited by 82 (3 self)
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AbstractThis paper considers the problem of modeling and extracting arbitrary deformable contours from noisy images. We propose a global contour model based on a stable and regenerative shape matrix, which is invariant and unique under rigid motions. Combined with Markov random field to model local deformations, this yields prior distribution that exerts influence over a global model while allowing for deformations. We then cast the problem of extraction into posterior estimation and show its equivalence to energy minimization of a generalized active contour model. We discuss pertinent issues in shape training, energy minimization, line search strategies, minimax regularization and initialization by generalized Hough transform. Finally, we present experimental results and compare its performance to rigid template matching. Index TermsDeformable model, rigid template, snake, active contour, boundary extraction. I.
Edge Detection Techniques  An Overview
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PATTERN RECOGNITION AND IMAGE ANALYSIS
, 1998
"... In computer vision and image processing, edge detection concerns the localization of significant variations of the grey level image and the identification of the physical phenomena that originated them. This information is very useful for applications in 3D reconstruction, motion, recognition, image ..."
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Cited by 81 (2 self)
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In computer vision and image processing, edge detection concerns the localization of significant variations of the grey level image and the identification of the physical phenomena that originated them. This information is very useful for applications in 3D reconstruction, motion, recognition, image enhancement and restoration, image registration, image compression, and so on. Usually, edge detection requires smoothing and differentiation of the image. Differentiation is an illconditioned problem and smoothing results in a loss of information. It is difficult to design a general edge detection algorithm which performs well in many contexts and captures the requirements of subsequent processing stages. Consequently, over the history of digital image processing a variety of edge detectors have been devised which differ in their mathematical and algorithmic properties. This paper is an account of the current state of our understanding of edge detection. We propose an overview of research...
Describing Surfaces
 Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing
, 1985
"... This paper continues ou,' work' on vlsuM representations of threedimensional surfaces [Brady and Yuille 1984b]. The theoretical component o our work is a study of classes of surface curves as a source of constraint on the surface on which they lie, and as a basis for describing it. We analyze bound ..."
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Cited by 48 (3 self)
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This paper continues ou,' work' on vlsuM representations of threedimensional surfaces [Brady and Yuille 1984b]. The theoretical component o our work is a study of classes of surface curves as a source of constraint on the surface on which they lie, and as a basis for describing it. We analyze bounding contours, sin face intersections, lines of cunature, and asymptotes. Our experimental work hives.igates whether the information suggested by our theoretical study can be computed reliably mid efficiently. We demonstrate algorithms that compute lines of curvature of a (Gaussian smoothed) surface; determine planar patches and umbi!ic regions; extract axes of surfaces of revolution and tube surfaces. We report preliminary results on adapting the curvature primM sketch algorithms of Asada and Brady [1984] to detect and describe surface intersections. () Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1984 This report describes research done at the Artificial Intelligeice Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the ]aboratory's Artificial Intelligence reseat.oh is provided in par. by the Adwmced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense under Office of Naval Research contract N0001480C0505, the Office of Nax'al Research under contract number N000t477C0389, ,and the System Development Foundation. This wcrk was done while Haruo Asada was a visiting scientist at MIT on leave from Toshiba Corporation, Japan, and while Jean Ponce was a visking s.ientist on leave from I.'RIA, Paris, Fro,nee. ' Pr't of (t6:7)
Analog "Neuronal" Networks in Early Vision
, 1985
"... Many problems in early vision can be formulated in terms of minimizing an' energy or cost function. Examples are shapefromshading, edge detection, motion snatysis, structure from motion and surface interpolation (Poggio, Torre and Koch, 1985). It has been shown that all quadratic variational probl ..."
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Cited by 35 (8 self)
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Many problems in early vision can be formulated in terms of minimizing an' energy or cost function. Examples are shapefromshading, edge detection, motion snatysis, structure from motion and surface interpolation (Poggio, Torre and Koch, 1985). It has been shown that all quadratic variational problems, an important subset of early vision tasks, can be "solved" by linear, analog electrical or chemical networks (Poggio and Koch, 1985). In a variety of situations the cost function is nonquadratic, however, for instance in the presence of discontinuities. The use of nonquadratic cost functions raises the question of designing efficient algorithms for computing the optimal solution. Recently. Hopfield and Tank (1985) have shown that networks of nonlinear analog "neurons" can be effect. lye in computing the solution of optimization problems, In this paper, we show how these networks can be generalized to solve the nonconvex energy functionals of early vision. We illustrate this approach by implementing a specific network solving the problem of reconstructing a smooth surface while preserving its discontinuities from sparsely sampled data (Geman and Geman, 1984; Marroquin, 1984; Terzopoulos, 1984). These results suggest a novel computational strategy for solving such problems for both biological and artificial vision systems.
Energy Functions for Early Vision and Analog Networks.
 Biological Cybernetics
, 1987
"... This paper describes attempts to model the modules of early vision in terms of minimizing energy functions, in particular energy functions allowing discontinuities in the solution. It examines the success of using Hopfieldstyle analog networks for solving such problems. Finally it discusses the ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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This paper describes attempts to model the modules of early vision in terms of minimizing energy functions, in particular energy functions allowing discontinuities in the solution. It examines the success of using Hopfieldstyle analog networks for solving such problems. Finally it discusses the limitations of the energy function approach.
Deformable Contours: Modeling, Extraction, Detection And Classification
, 1994
"... This thesis presents an integrated approach in modeling, extracting, detecting and classifying deformable contours directly from noisy images. We begin by conducting a case study on regularization, formulation and initialization of the active contour models (snakes). Using minimax principle, we deri ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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This thesis presents an integrated approach in modeling, extracting, detecting and classifying deformable contours directly from noisy images. We begin by conducting a case study on regularization, formulation and initialization of the active contour models (snakes). Using minimax principle, we derive a regularization criterion whereby the values can be automatically and implicitly determined along the contour. Furthermore, we formulate a set of energy functionals which yield snakes that contain Hough transform as a special case. Subsequently, we consider the problem of modeling and extracting arbitrary deformable contours from noisy images. We combine a stable, invariant and unique contour model with Markov random field to yield prior distribution that exerts influence over an arbitrary global model while allowing for deformation. Under the Bayesian framework, contour extraction turns into posterior estimation, which is in turn equivalent to energy minimization in a generalized active...