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27
A device architecture for computing with quantum dots
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1997
"... We describe a paradigm for computing with interacting quantum dots, quantumdot cellular automata (QCA). We show how arrays of quantumdot cells could be used to perform useful computations. A new adiabatic switching paradigm is developed which permits clocked control, eliminates metastability probl ..."
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Cited by 128 (6 self)
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We describe a paradigm for computing with interacting quantum dots, quantumdot cellular automata (QCA). We show how arrays of quantumdot cells could be used to perform useful computations. A new adiabatic switching paradigm is developed which permits clocked control, eliminates metastability problems, and enables a pipelined architecture. Keywords—Molecular electronics, quantumeffect semiconductor, devices, quantumwell devices, singleelectron devices. I.
Information Distance
, 1997
"... While Kolmogorov complexity is the accepted absolute measure of information content in an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the information distance between two individual objects, for example, two pictures. We give several natural definitions of a universal inf ..."
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Cited by 44 (5 self)
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While Kolmogorov complexity is the accepted absolute measure of information content in an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the information distance between two individual objects, for example, two pictures. We give several natural definitions of a universal information metric, based on length of shortest programs for either ordinary computations or reversible (dissipationless) computations. It turns out that these definitions are equivalent up to an additive logarithmic term. We show that the information distance is a universal cognitive similarity distance. We investigate the maximal correlation of the shortest programs involved, the maximal uncorrelation of programs (a generalization of the SlepianWolf theorem of classical information theory), and the density properties of the discrete metric spaces induced by the information distances. A related distance measures the amount of nonreversibility of a computation. Using the physical theo...
Theory of molecular machines. II. Energy dissipation from molecular machines
 J. Theor. Biol
, 1991
"... Single molecules perform a variety of tasks in cells, from replicating, controlling and translating the genetic material to sensing the outside environment. These operations all require that specific actions take place. In a sense, each molecule must make tiny decisions. To make a decision, each “mo ..."
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Cited by 34 (19 self)
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Single molecules perform a variety of tasks in cells, from replicating, controlling and translating the genetic material to sensing the outside environment. These operations all require that specific actions take place. In a sense, each molecule must make tiny decisions. To make a decision, each “molecular machine ” must dissipate an energy Py in the presense of thermal noise Ny. The number of binary decisions that can be made by a machine which has dspace
Overview of Nanoelectronic Devices
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1997
"... This paper provides an overview of research developments toward nanometerscale electronic switching devices for use in building ultradensely integrated electronic computers. Specifically, two classes of alternatives to the fieldeffect transistor are considered: 1) quantumeffect and singleelectr ..."
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Cited by 17 (1 self)
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This paper provides an overview of research developments toward nanometerscale electronic switching devices for use in building ultradensely integrated electronic computers. Specifically, two classes of alternatives to the fieldeffect transistor are considered: 1) quantumeffect and singleelectron solidstate devices and 2) molecular electronic devices. A taxonomy of devices in each class is provided, operational principles are described and compared for the various types of devices, and the literature about each is surveyed. This information is presented in nonmathematical terms intended for a general, technically interested readership
Operation of a quantumdot cellular automata shift register and analysis of errors, by
 534 Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering
, 1906
"... Abstract—Quantumdot cellular automata (QCA) is a digital logic architecture that uses single electrons in arrays of quantum dots to perform binary operations. A QCA latch is an elementary building block which can be used to build shift registers and logic devices for clocked QCA architectures. We d ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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Abstract—Quantumdot cellular automata (QCA) is a digital logic architecture that uses single electrons in arrays of quantum dots to perform binary operations. A QCA latch is an elementary building block which can be used to build shift registers and logic devices for clocked QCA architectures. We discuss the operation of a QCA latch and a shift register and present an analysis of the types and properties of errors encountered in their operation. Index Terms—Error rate, latch, logic, quantumdot cellular automata (QCA), shift register, single electron. I.
CONSTRUCTING ONLINE TESTABLE CIRCUITS USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC
"... Testable fault tolerant system design has become vital for many safety critical applications. On the other hand, reversible logic is gaining interest in the recent past due to its less heat dissipating characteristics. Any Boolean logic function can be implemented using reversible gates. This paper ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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Testable fault tolerant system design has become vital for many safety critical applications. On the other hand, reversible logic is gaining interest in the recent past due to its less heat dissipating characteristics. Any Boolean logic function can be implemented using reversible gates. This paper proposes a technique to convert any reversible logic gate to a testable gate that is also reversible. The resultant reversible testable gate can detect online any single bit errors that include Single Stuck Faults and Single Event Upsets S.Karp et.al (1993). The proposed technique is illustrated using an example that converts a reversible decoder circuit to an online testable reversible decoder circuit.
Theory of Thermodynamics of Computation
 Proc. IEEE Physics of Computation Workshop
, 1992
"... We investigate a new research area: we are interested in the ultimate thermodynamic cost of computing from x to y. Other than its fundamental importance, such research has implications for future miniaturization of VLSI chips reducing the energy dissipation below kT (thermal noise), and the similar ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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We investigate a new research area: we are interested in the ultimate thermodynamic cost of computing from x to y. Other than its fundamental importance, such research has implications for future miniaturization of VLSI chips reducing the energy dissipation below kT (thermal noise), and the similarity distance problem in pattern recognition. It turns out that the theory of thermodynamic cost of computation can be axiomatically developed. Our fundamental theorem connects physics to mathematics, providing the key that makes such a theory possible. It establishes optimal upper and lower bounds on the ultimate thermodynamic cost of computation. By computing longer and longer, the amount of dissipated energy gets closer to these limits. In fact, one can trade time for energy: there is a provable timeenergy tradeoff hierarchy. The fundamental theorem also induces a thermodynamic distance metric. The topological properties of this metric show that neighborhoods are sparse, and get even spar...
Efficient Building Blocks for Reversible Sequential Circuit Design
"... Abstract — Reversible logic is gaining interest in the recent past due to its less heat dissipating characteristics. It has been proved that any Boolean function can be implemented using reversible gates. In this paper we propose a set of basic sequential elements that could be used for building lar ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Abstract — Reversible logic is gaining interest in the recent past due to its less heat dissipating characteristics. It has been proved that any Boolean function can be implemented using reversible gates. In this paper we propose a set of basic sequential elements that could be used for building large reversible sequential circuits leading to logic and garbage reduction by a factor of 2 to 6 when compared to existing reversible designs reported in the literature.
Efficient Reversible Montgomery Multiplier and Its Application to Hardware Cryptography
"... Abstract: Problem Statement: Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of a cryptoprocessor and microchips leak information through power consumption. Although the cryptographic protocols are secured against mathematical attacks, the attackers can break the encryption by measuring the energy consumption. Approac ..."
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Abstract: Problem Statement: Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of a cryptoprocessor and microchips leak information through power consumption. Although the cryptographic protocols are secured against mathematical attacks, the attackers can break the encryption by measuring the energy consumption. Approach: To thwart attacks, this study proposed the use of reversible logic for designing the ALU of a cryptoprocessor. Ideally, reversible circuits do not dissipate any energy. If reversible circuits are used, then the attacker would not be able to analyze the power consumption. In order to design the reversible ALU of a cryptoprocessor, reversible Carry Save Adder (CSA) using Modified TSG (MTSG) gates and architecture of Montgomery multiplier were proposed. For reversible implementation of Montgomery multiplier, efficient reversible multiplexers and sequential circuits such as reversible registers and shift registers were presented. Results: This study showed that modified designs perform better than the existing ones in terms of number of gates, number of garbage outputs and quantum cost. Lower bounds of the proposed designs were established by providing relevant theorems and lemmas. Conclusion: The application of reversible circuit is suitable to the field of hardware cryptography. Key words: Montgomery multiplier, carry save adder, reversible gate, shift register
Mathematical Theory of Thermodynamics of Computation
"... We investigate a new research area: we are interested in the ultimate thermodynamic cost of computing from x to y. Other than its fundamental importance, such research has potential implications in miniaturization of VLSI chips and applications in pattern recognition. It turns out that the theory of ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We investigate a new research area: we are interested in the ultimate thermodynamic cost of computing from x to y. Other than its fundamental importance, such research has potential implications in miniaturization of VLSI chips and applications in pattern recognition. It turns out that the theory of thermodynamic cost of computation can be axiomatically developed. Our fundamental theorem connects physics to mathematics, providing the key that makes such a theory possible. It establishes optimal upper and lower bounds on the ultimate thermodynamic cost of computation. By computing longer and longer, the amount of dissipated energy gets closer to these limits. In fact, one can trade time for energy: there is a provable timeenergy tradeoff hierarchy. The fundamental theorem also induces a thermodynamic distance metric. The topological properties of this metric show that neighborhoods are sparse, and get even sparser if they are centered on random elements. The proofs use Symmetry of Inf...