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134
The Dynamics of Stochastic Volatility: Evidence from Underlying and Option Markets
, 2000
"... This paper proposes and estimates a more general parametric stochastic variance model of equity index returns than has been previously considered using data from both underlying and options markets. The parameters of the model under both the objective and riskneutral measures are estimated simultane ..."
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Cited by 103 (3 self)
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This paper proposes and estimates a more general parametric stochastic variance model of equity index returns than has been previously considered using data from both underlying and options markets. The parameters of the model under both the objective and riskneutral measures are estimated simultaneously. I conclude that the square root stochastic variance model of Heston (1993) and others is incapable of generating realistic returns behavior and find that the data are more accurately represented by a stochastic variance model in the CEV class or a model that allows the price and variance processes to have a timevarying correlation. Specifically, I find that as the level of market variance increases, the volatility of market variance increases rapidly and the correlation between the price and variance processes becomes substantially more negative. The heightened heteroskedasticity in market variance that results generates realistic crash probabilities and dynamics and causes returns to display values of skewness and kurtosis much more consistent with their sample values. While the model dramatically improves the fit of options prices relative to the square root process, it falls short of explaining the implied volatility smile for shortdated options.
Maximum likelihood estimation for stochastic volatility models
 JOURNAL OF FINANCIAL ECONOMICS
, 2007
"... We develop and implement a method for maximum likelihood estimation in closedform of stochastic volatility models. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare a full likelihood procedure, where an option price is inverted into the unobservable volatility state, to an approximate likelihood procedure ..."
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Cited by 62 (3 self)
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We develop and implement a method for maximum likelihood estimation in closedform of stochastic volatility models. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare a full likelihood procedure, where an option price is inverted into the unobservable volatility state, to an approximate likelihood procedure where the volatility state is replaced by proxies based on the implied volatility of a shortdated atthemoney option. The approximation results in a small loss of accuracy relative to the standard errors due to sampling noise. We apply this method to market prices of index options for several stochastic volatility models, and compare the characteristics of the estimated models. The evidence for a general CEV model, which nests both the affine Heston model and a GARCH model, suggests that the elasticity of variance of volatility lies between that assumed by the two nested models.
Option Pricing by Transform Methods: Extensions, Unification, and Error Control
 Journal of Computational Finance
"... We extend and unify Fourieranalytic methods for pricing a wide class of options on any underlying state variable whose characteristic function is known. In this general setting, we bound the numerical pricing error of discretized transform computations, such as DFT/FFT. These bounds enable algorith ..."
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Cited by 59 (6 self)
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We extend and unify Fourieranalytic methods for pricing a wide class of options on any underlying state variable whose characteristic function is known. In this general setting, we bound the numerical pricing error of discretized transform computations, such as DFT/FFT. These bounds enable algorithms to select efficient quadrature parameters and to price with guaranteed numerical accuracy.
Efficient simulation of the Heston stochastic volatility model. Working paper, Banc of America Securities
, 2007
"... Stochastic volatility models are increasingly important in practical derivatives pricing applications, yet relatively little work has been undertaken in the development of practical Monte Carlo simulation methods for this class of models. This paper considers several new algorithms for timediscreti ..."
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Cited by 36 (0 self)
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Stochastic volatility models are increasingly important in practical derivatives pricing applications, yet relatively little work has been undertaken in the development of practical Monte Carlo simulation methods for this class of models. This paper considers several new algorithms for timediscretization and Monte Carlo simulation of Hestontype stochastic volatility models. The algorithms are based on a careful analysis of the properties of affine stochastic volatility diffusions, and are straightforward and quick to implement and execute. Tests on realistic model parameterizations reveal that the computational efficiency and robustness of the simulation schemes proposed in the paper compare very favorably to existing methods. 1
Multiscale stochastic volatility asymptotics
 SIAM J. MULTISCALE MODELING AND SIMULATION
, 2003
"... In this paper we propose to use a combination of regular and singular perturbations to analyze parabolic PDEs that arise in the context of pricing options when the volatility is a stochastic process that varies on several characteristic time scales. The classical BlackScholes formula gives the pri ..."
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Cited by 34 (15 self)
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In this paper we propose to use a combination of regular and singular perturbations to analyze parabolic PDEs that arise in the context of pricing options when the volatility is a stochastic process that varies on several characteristic time scales. The classical BlackScholes formula gives the price of call options when the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion with a constant volatility. The underlying might be the price of a stock or an index say and a constant volatility corresponds to a fixed standard deviation for the random fluctuations in the returns of the underlying. Modern market phenomena makes it important to analyze the situation when this volatility is not fixed but rather is heterogeneous and varies with time. In previous work, see for instance [5], we considered the situation when the volatility is fast mean reverting. Using a singular perturbation expansion we derived an approximation for option prices. We also provided a calibration method using observed option prices as represented by the socalled term structure of implied volatility. Our analysis of market data, however, shows the need for introducing also a slowly varying factor in the model for the stochastic volatility. The combination of regular and singular perturbations approach that we set forth in this paper deals with this case. The resulting approximation is still independent of the particular details of the volatility model and gives more flexibility in the parametrization of the
An Equilibrium Guide to Designing Affine Pricing Models, Mathematical Finance forthcoming
, 2007
"... We examine equilibriummodels based on EpsteinZin preferences in a framework where exogenous state variables which drive consumption and dividend dynamics follow affine jump diffusion processes. Equilibrium asset prices can be computed using a standard machinery of affine asset pricing theory by im ..."
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Cited by 26 (9 self)
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We examine equilibriummodels based on EpsteinZin preferences in a framework where exogenous state variables which drive consumption and dividend dynamics follow affine jump diffusion processes. Equilibrium asset prices can be computed using a standard machinery of affine asset pricing theory by imposing parametric restrictions on market prices of risk, determined by preference and model parameters. We present a detailed example where large shocks (jumps) in consumption volatility translate into negative jumps in equilibrium prices of the assets. This endogenous ”leverage effect ” leads to significant premiums for outofthemoney put options. Our model is thus able to produce an equilibrium ”volatility smirk ” which realistically mimics that observed for index options. KEY WORDS: EpsteinZin preferences, affine asset pricing model, general equilibrium, option pricing ∗We thank two anonymous referees and the associate editor for valuable comments. We have also
Long memory and the relation between implied and realized volatility
, 2006
"... ∗This paper was written for the workshop “Modélisation, estimation et prévision de la volatilité/Modeling, estimating and forecasting volatility, ” Universite ́ de Montréal, April 28, 2001, and was briefly circulated under the title “A fundamentally different interpretation of the relation betwe ..."
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Cited by 22 (0 self)
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∗This paper was written for the workshop “Modélisation, estimation et prévision de la volatilité/Modeling, estimating and forecasting volatility, ” Universite ́ de Montréal, April 28, 2001, and was briefly circulated under the title “A fundamentally different interpretation of the relation between implied and realized volatility. ” We are grateful to Nagpurnanand Prabhala for providing his option price data. We thank the Editors (René
IMPLIED AND LOCAL VOLATILITIES UNDER STOCHASTIC VOLATILITY
, 2001
"... For asset prices that follow stochasticvolatility diffusions, we use asymptotic methods to investigate the behavior of the local volatilities and Black–Scholes volatilities implied by option prices, and to relate this behavior to the parameters of the stochastic volatility process. We also give app ..."
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Cited by 18 (3 self)
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For asset prices that follow stochasticvolatility diffusions, we use asymptotic methods to investigate the behavior of the local volatilities and Black–Scholes volatilities implied by option prices, and to relate this behavior to the parameters of the stochastic volatility process. We also give applications, including riskpremiumbased explanations of the biases in some naïve pricing and hedging schemes. We begin by reviewing option pricing under stochastic volatility and representing option prices and local volatilities in terms of expectations. In the case that fluctuations in price and volatility have zero correlation, the expectations formula shows that local volatility (like implied volatility) as a function of logmoneyness has the shape of a symmetric smile. In the case of nonzero correlation, we extend Sircar and Papanicolaou’s asymptotic expansion of implied volatilities under slowlyvarying stochastic volatility. An asymptotic expansion of local volatilities then verifies the rule of thumb that local volatility has the shape of a skew with roughly twice the slope of the implied volatility skew. Also we compare the slowvariation asymptotics against what we call smallvariation asymptotics, and against Fouque, Papanicolaou, and Sircar’s rapidvariation
The Econometrics of Option Pricing
"... The growth of the option pricing literature parallels the spectacular developments of derivative securities and the rapid expansion of markets for derivatives in the last three decades. Writing a survey of option pricing models appears therefore like a formidable task. To delimit our focus we will ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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The growth of the option pricing literature parallels the spectacular developments of derivative securities and the rapid expansion of markets for derivatives in the last three decades. Writing a survey of option pricing models appears therefore like a formidable task. To delimit our focus we will put emphasis on the more recent contributions since there are
Pricing options on scalar diffusions: an eigenfunction expansion approach
 Management Science
"... This paper develops an eigenfunction expansion approach to pricing options on scalar diffusion processes. All derivative securities are unbundled into portfolios of primitive securities termed eigensecurities. Eigensecurities are eigenvectors of the pricing operator (present value operator). Pricing ..."
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Cited by 16 (7 self)
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This paper develops an eigenfunction expansion approach to pricing options on scalar diffusion processes. All derivative securities are unbundled into portfolios of primitive securities termed eigensecurities. Eigensecurities are eigenvectors of the pricing operator (present value operator). Pricing is then immediate by the linearity property of the pricing operator and the eigenvector property of eigensecurities. To illustrate the computational power of the method, we develop two applications: pricing vanilla, single and doublebarrier options under the constant elasticity of variance (CEV) process and interest rate knockout options in the CoxIngersollRoss (CIR) termstructure model.