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An Overview of Evolutionary Algorithms in Multiobjective Optimization
 Evolutionary Computation
, 1995
"... The application of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in multiobjective optimization is currently receiving growing interest from researchers with various backgrounds. Most research in this area has understandably concentrated on the selection stage of EAs, due to the need to integrate vectorial performa ..."
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Cited by 458 (13 self)
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The application of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in multiobjective optimization is currently receiving growing interest from researchers with various backgrounds. Most research in this area has understandably concentrated on the selection stage of EAs, due to the need to integrate vectorial performance measures with the inherently scalar way in which EAs reward individual performance, i.e., number of offspring. In this review, current multiobjective evolutionary approaches are discussed, ranging from the conventional analytical aggregation of the different objectives into a single function to a number of populationbased approaches and the more recent ranking schemes based on the definition of Paretooptimality. The sensitivity of different methods to
A Genetic Algorithm Tutorial
 Statistics and Computing
, 1994
"... This tutorial covers the canonical genetic algorithm as well as more experimental forms of genetic algorithms, including parallel island models and parallel cellular genetic algorithms. The tutorial also illustrates genetic search byhyperplane sampling. The theoretical foundations of genetic algorit ..."
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Cited by 279 (5 self)
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This tutorial covers the canonical genetic algorithm as well as more experimental forms of genetic algorithms, including parallel island models and parallel cellular genetic algorithms. The tutorial also illustrates genetic search byhyperplane sampling. The theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms are reviewed, include the schema theorem as well as recently developed exact models of the canonical genetic algorithm.
Niching Methods for Genetic Algorithms
, 1995
"... Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This ..."
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Cited by 223 (1 self)
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Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This study presents a comprehensive treatment of niching methods and the related topic of population diversity. Its purpose is to analyze existing niching methods and to design improved niching methods. To achieve this purpose, it first develops a general framework for the modelling of niching methods, and then applies this framework to construct models of individual niching methods, specifically crowding and sharing methods. Using a constructed model of crowding, this study determines why crowding methods over the last two decades have not made effective niching methods. A series of tests and design modifications results in the development of a highly effective form of crowding, called determin...
A cooperative coevolutionary approach to function optimization
, 1994
"... Abstract. A general model for the coevolution of cooperating species is presented. This model is instantiated and tested in the domain of function optimization, and compared with a traditional GAbased function optimizer. The results are encouraging in two respects. They suggest ways in which the pe ..."
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Cited by 211 (11 self)
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Abstract. A general model for the coevolution of cooperating species is presented. This model is instantiated and tested in the domain of function optimization, and compared with a traditional GAbased function optimizer. The results are encouraging in two respects. They suggest ways in which the performance of GA and other EAbased optimizers can be improved, and they suggest a new approach to evolving complex structures such as neural networks and rule sets. 1
A Survey of Parallel Genetic Algorithms
 CALCULATEURS PARALLELES, RESEAUX ET SYSTEMS REPARTIS
, 1998
"... Genetic algorithms (GAs) are powerful search techniques that are used successfully to solve problems in many different disciplines. Parallel GAs are particularly easy to implement and promise substantial gains in performance. As such, there has been extensive research in this field. This survey att ..."
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Cited by 159 (5 self)
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Genetic algorithms (GAs) are powerful search techniques that are used successfully to solve problems in many different disciplines. Parallel GAs are particularly easy to implement and promise substantial gains in performance. As such, there has been extensive research in this field. This survey attempts to collect, organize, and present in a unified way some of the most representative publications on parallel genetic algorithms. To organize the literature, the paper presents a categorization of the techniques used to parallelize GAs, and shows examples of all of them. However, since the majority of the research in this field has concentrated on parallel GAs with multiple populations, the survey focuses on this type of algorithms. Also, the paper describes some of the most significant problems in modeling and designing multipopulation parallel GAs and presents some recent advancements.
A Sequential Niche Technique for Multimodal Function Optimization
 EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1993
"... A technique is described which allows unimodal function optimization methods to be extended to efficiently locate all optima of multimodal problems. We describe an algorithm based on a traditional genetic algorithm (GA). This involves iterating the GA, but uses knowledge gained during one iteration ..."
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Cited by 152 (2 self)
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A technique is described which allows unimodal function optimization methods to be extended to efficiently locate all optima of multimodal problems. We describe an algorithm based on a traditional genetic algorithm (GA). This involves iterating the GA, but uses knowledge gained during one iteration to avoid researching, on subsequent iterations, regions of problem space where solutions have already been found. This is achieved by applying a fitness derating function to the raw fitness function, so that fitness values are depressed in the regions of the problem space where solutions have already been found. Consequently, the likelihood of discovering a new solution on each iteration is dramatically increased. The technique may be used with various styles of GA, or with other optimization methods, such as simulated annealing. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on a number of multimodal test functions. The technique is at least as fast as fitness sharing methods. It provi...
Searching for Diverse, Cooperative Populations with Genetic Algorithms
 EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1993
"... In typical applications, genetic algorithms (GAs) process populations of potential problem solutions to evolve a single population member that specifies an "optimized" solution. The majority of GA analysis has focused on these optimization applications. In other applications (notably le ..."
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Cited by 104 (10 self)
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In typical applications, genetic algorithms (GAs) process populations of potential problem solutions to evolve a single population member that specifies an "optimized" solution. The majority of GA analysis has focused on these optimization applications. In other applications (notably learning classifier systems and certain connectionist learning systems), a GA searches for a population of cooperative structures that jointly perform a computational task. This paper presents an analysis of this type of GA problem. The analysis considers a simplified geneticsbased machine learning system: a model of an immune system. In this model, a GA must discover a set of patternmatching antibodies that effectively match a set of antigen patterns. Analysis shows how a GA can automatically evolve and sustain a diverse, cooperative population. The cooperation emerges as a natural part of the antigenantibody matching procedure. This emergent effect is shown to be similar to fitness sharing, ...
Escaping Hierarchical Traps with Competent Genetic Algorithms
 Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO2001
, 2001
"... To solve hierarchical problems, one must be able to learn the linkage, represent partial solutions efficiently, and assure effective niching. We propose the hierarchical ... ..."
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Cited by 101 (49 self)
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To solve hierarchical problems, one must be able to learn the linkage, represent partial solutions efficiently, and assure effective niching. We propose the hierarchical ...
Bayesian Optimization Algorithm: From Single Level to Hierarchy
, 2002
"... There are four primary goals of this dissertation. First, design a competent optimization algorithm capable of learning and exploiting appropriate problem decomposition by sampling and evaluating candidate solutions. Second, extend the proposed algorithm to enable the use of hierarchical decompositi ..."
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Cited by 99 (18 self)
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There are four primary goals of this dissertation. First, design a competent optimization algorithm capable of learning and exploiting appropriate problem decomposition by sampling and evaluating candidate solutions. Second, extend the proposed algorithm to enable the use of hierarchical decomposition as opposed to decomposition on only a single level. Third, design a class of difficult hierarchical problems that can be used to test the algorithms that attempt to exploit hierarchical decomposition. Fourth, test the developed algorithms on the designed class of problems and several realworld applications. The dissertation proposes the Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA), which uses Bayesian networks to model the promising solutions found so far and sample new candidate solutions. BOA is theoretically and empirically shown to be capable of both learning a proper decomposition of the problem and exploiting the learned decomposition to ensure robust and scalable search for the optimum across a wide range of problems. The dissertation then identifies important features that must be incorporated into the basic BOA to solve problems that are not decomposable on a single level, but that can still be solved by decomposition over multiple levels of difficulty. Hierarchical