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Discrete logarithms in gf(p) using the number field sieve
 SIAM J. Discrete Math
, 1993
"... Recently, several algorithms using number field sieves have been given to factor a number n in heuristic expected time Ln[1/3; c], where Ln[v; c] = exp{(c + o(1))(log n) v (log log n) 1−v}, for n → ∞. In this paper we present an algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem for GF (p) with heur ..."
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Cited by 66 (1 self)
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Recently, several algorithms using number field sieves have been given to factor a number n in heuristic expected time Ln[1/3; c], where Ln[v; c] = exp{(c + o(1))(log n) v (log log n) 1−v}, for n → ∞. In this paper we present an algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem for GF (p) with heuristic expected running time Lp[1/3; 3 2/3]. For numbers of a special form, there is an asymptotically slower but more practical version of the algorithm.
Computation of Discrete Logarithms in Prime Fields
 Design, Codes and Cryptography
, 1991
"... The presumed difficulty of computing discrete logarithms in finite fields is the basis of several popular public key cryptosystems. The secure identification option of the Sun Network File System, for example, uses discrete logarithms in a field GF (p) with p a prime of 192 bits. This paper describe ..."
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Cited by 38 (1 self)
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The presumed difficulty of computing discrete logarithms in finite fields is the basis of several popular public key cryptosystems. The secure identification option of the Sun Network File System, for example, uses discrete logarithms in a field GF (p) with p a prime of 192 bits. This paper describes an implementation of a discrete logarithm algorithm which shows that primes of under 200 bits, such as that in the Sun system, are very insecure. Some enhancements to this system are suggested. 1. Introduction If p is a prime and g and x integers, then computation of y such that y j g x mod p; 0 y p \Gamma 1 (1.1) is referred to as discrete exponentiation. Using the successive squaring method, it is very fast (polynomial in the number of bits of jpj + jgj + jxj). On the other hand, the inverse problem, namely, given p; g, and y, to compute some x such that Equation 1.1 holds, which is referred to as the discrete logarithm problem, appears to be quite hard in general. Many of the mos...
Open Problems in Number Theoretic Complexity, II
"... this paper contains a list of 36 open problems in numbertheoretic complexity. We expect that none of these problems are easy; we are sure that many of them are hard. This list of problems reflects our own interests and should not be viewed as definitive. As the field changes and becomes deeper, new ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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this paper contains a list of 36 open problems in numbertheoretic complexity. We expect that none of these problems are easy; we are sure that many of them are hard. This list of problems reflects our own interests and should not be viewed as definitive. As the field changes and becomes deeper, new problems will emerge and old problems will lose favor. Ideally there will be other `open problems' papers in future ANTS proceedings to help guide the field. It is likely that some of the problems presented here will remain open for the forseeable future. However, it is possible in some cases to make progress by solving subproblems, or by establishing reductions between problems, or by settling problems under the assumption of one or more well known hypotheses (e.g. the various extended Riemann hypotheses, NP 6= P; NP 6= coNP). For the sake of clarity we have often chosen to state a specific version of a problem rather than a general one. For example, questions about the integers modulo a prime often have natural generalizations to arbitrary finite fields, to arbitrary cyclic groups, or to problems with a composite modulus. Questions about the integers often have natural generalizations to the ring of integers in an algebraic number field, and questions about elliptic curves often generalize to arbitrary curves or abelian varieties. The problems presented here arose from many different places and times. To those whose research has generated these problems or has contributed to our present understanding of them but to whom inadequate acknowledgement is given here, we apologize. Our list of open problems is derived from an earlier `open problems' paper we wrote in 1986 [AM86]. When we wrote the first version of this paper, we feared that the problems presented were so difficult...
Factorization of a 768bit RSA modulus
, 2010
"... This paper reports on the factorization of the 768bit number RSA768 by the number field sieve factoring method and discusses some implications for RSA. ..."
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Cited by 23 (6 self)
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This paper reports on the factorization of the 768bit number RSA768 by the number field sieve factoring method and discusses some implications for RSA.
Lecture Notes on Cryptography
, 2001
"... This is a set of lecture notes on cryptography compiled for 6.87s, a one week long course on cryptography taught at MIT by Shafi Goldwasser and Mihir Bellare in the summers of 1996–2001. The notes were formed by merging notes written for Shafi Goldwasser’s Cryptography and Cryptanalysis course at MI ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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This is a set of lecture notes on cryptography compiled for 6.87s, a one week long course on cryptography taught at MIT by Shafi Goldwasser and Mihir Bellare in the summers of 1996–2001. The notes were formed by merging notes written for Shafi Goldwasser’s Cryptography and Cryptanalysis course at MIT with notes written for Mihir Bellare’s Cryptography and network security course at UCSD. In addition, Rosario Gennaro (as Teaching Assistant for the course in 1996) contributed Section 9.6, Section 11.4, Section 11.5, and Appendix D to the notes, and also compiled, from various sources, some of the problems in Appendix E. Cryptography is of course a vast subject. The thread followed by these notes is to develop and explain the notion of provable security and its usage for the design of secure protocols. Much of the material in Chapters 2, 3 and 7 is a result of scribe notes, originally taken by MIT graduate students who attended Professor Goldwasser’s Cryptography and Cryptanalysis course over the years, and later edited by Frank D’Ippolito who was a teaching assistant for the course in 1991. Frank also contributed much of the advanced number theoretic material in the Appendix. Some of the material in Chapter 3 is from the chapter on Cryptography, by R. Rivest, in the Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science. Chapters 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10, and Sections 9.5 and 7.4.6, were written by Professor Bellare for his Cryptography and network security course at UCSD.
Improvements to the general number field sieve for discrete logarithms in prime fields
 Mathematics of Computation
, 2003
"... Abstract. In this paper, we describe many improvements to the number field sieve. Our main contribution consists of a new way to compute individual logarithms with the number field sieve without solving a very large linear system for each logarithm. We show that, with these improvements, the number ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, we describe many improvements to the number field sieve. Our main contribution consists of a new way to compute individual logarithms with the number field sieve without solving a very large linear system for each logarithm. We show that, with these improvements, the number field sieve outperforms the gaussian integer method in the hundred digit range. We also illustrate our results by successfully computing discrete logarithms with GNFS in a large prime field. 1.
Computing A Square Root For The Number Field Sieve
 The Development of the Number Field Sieve, volume 1554 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics
, 1993
"... . The number field sieve is a method proposed by Lenstra, Lenstra, Manasse and Pollard for integer factorization (this volume,pp. 1140). A heuristic analysis indicates that this method is asymptotically faster than any other existing one. It has had spectacular successes in factoring numbers of ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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. The number field sieve is a method proposed by Lenstra, Lenstra, Manasse and Pollard for integer factorization (this volume,pp. 1140). A heuristic analysis indicates that this method is asymptotically faster than any other existing one. It has had spectacular successes in factoring numbers of a special form. New technical difficulties arise when the method is adapted for general numbers (this volume, pp. 4889). Among these is the need for computing the square root of a huge algebraic integer given as a product of hundreds of thousands of small ones. We present a method for computing such a square root that avoids excessively large numbers. It works only if the degree of the number field that is used is odd. The method is based on a careful use of the Chinese remainder theorem. 1. Introduction We begin by recalling the basic scheme of the number field sieve, cf. [7]. Let n be a positive integer that is not a power of a prime number. In order to factor n, we first find m...
Integer Factorization
, 2006
"... Factorization problems are the “The problem of distinguishing prime numbers from composite numbers, and of resolving the latter into their prime factors, is known to be one of the most important and useful in arithmetic,” Gauss wrote in his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae in 1801. “The dignity of the sc ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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Factorization problems are the “The problem of distinguishing prime numbers from composite numbers, and of resolving the latter into their prime factors, is known to be one of the most important and useful in arithmetic,” Gauss wrote in his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae in 1801. “The dignity of the science itself seems to require that every possible means be explored for the solution of a problem so elegant and so celebrated.” But what exactly is the problem? It turns out that there are many different factorization problems, as we will discuss in this paper.