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14
Tightening NonSimple Paths and Cycles on Surfaces
 SUBMITTED TO SIAM JOURNAL ON COMPUTING
"... We describe algorithms to compute the shortest path homotopic to a given path, or the shortest cycle freely homotopic to a given cycle, on an orientable combinatorial surface. Unlike earlier results, our algorithms do not require the input path or cycle to be simple. Given a surface with complexity ..."
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Cited by 28 (9 self)
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We describe algorithms to compute the shortest path homotopic to a given path, or the shortest cycle freely homotopic to a given cycle, on an orientable combinatorial surface. Unlike earlier results, our algorithms do not require the input path or cycle to be simple. Given a surface with complexity n, genus g ≥ 2, and no boundary, we construct in O(gn log n) time a tight octagonal decomposition of the surface—a set of simple cycles, each as short as possible in its free homotopy class, that decompose the surface into a complex of octagons meeting four at a vertex. After the surface is preprocessed, we can compute the shortest path homotopic to a given path of complexity k in O(gnk) time, or the shortest cycle homotopic to a given cycle of complexity k in O(gnk log(nk)) time. A similar algorithm computes shortest homotopic curves on surfaces with boundary or with genus 1. We also prove that the recent algorithms of Colin de Verdière and Lazarus for shortening embedded graphs and sets of cycles have running times polynomial in the complexity of the surface and the input curves, regardless of the surface geometry.
Minimum Cuts and Shortest Homologous Cycles
 SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY
, 2009
"... We describe the first algorithms to compute minimum cuts in surfaceembedded graphs in nearlinear time. Given an undirected graph embedded on an orientable surface of genus g, with two specified vertices s and t, our algorithm computes a minimum (s, t)cut in g O(g) n log n time. Except for the spec ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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We describe the first algorithms to compute minimum cuts in surfaceembedded graphs in nearlinear time. Given an undirected graph embedded on an orientable surface of genus g, with two specified vertices s and t, our algorithm computes a minimum (s, t)cut in g O(g) n log n time. Except for the special case of planar graphs, for which O(n log n)time algorithms have been known for more than 20 years, the best previous time bounds for finding minimum cuts in embedded graphs follow from algorithms for general sparse graphs. A slight generalization of our minimumcut algorithm computes a minimumcost subgraph in every Z2homology class. We also prove that finding a minimumcost subgraph homologous to a single input cycle is NPhard.
Minimum Cuts and Shortest NonSeparating Cycles via Homology Covers
 SYMPOSIUM ON DISCRETE ALGORITHMS
, 2011
"... Let G be a directed graph with weighted edges, embedded on a surface of genus g with b boundaries. We describe an algorithm to compute the shortest directed cycle in G in any given � 2homology class in 2 O(g+b) n log n time; this problem is NPhard even for undirected graphs. We also present two ap ..."
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Cited by 10 (4 self)
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Let G be a directed graph with weighted edges, embedded on a surface of genus g with b boundaries. We describe an algorithm to compute the shortest directed cycle in G in any given � 2homology class in 2 O(g+b) n log n time; this problem is NPhard even for undirected graphs. We also present two applications of our algorithm. The first is an algorithm to compute the shortest nonseparating directed cycle in G in 2 O(g) n log n time, improving the recent algorithm of Cabello et al. [SOCG 2010] for all g = o(log n). The second is a combinatorial algorithm to compute minimum (s, t)cuts in undirected surface graphs in 2 O(g) n log n time, improving an algorithm of Chambers et al. [SOCG 2009] for all positive g. Unlike earlier algorithms for surface graphs that construct and search finite portions of the universal cover, our algorithms use another canonical covering space, called the Z 2homology cover.
Computing the shortest essential cycle
, 2008
"... An essential cycle on a surface is a simple cycle that cannot be continuously deformed to a point or a single boundary. We describe algorithms to compute the shortest essential cycle in an orientable combinatorial surface in O(n 2 log n) time, or in O(n log n) time when both the genus and number of ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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An essential cycle on a surface is a simple cycle that cannot be continuously deformed to a point or a single boundary. We describe algorithms to compute the shortest essential cycle in an orientable combinatorial surface in O(n 2 log n) time, or in O(n log n) time when both the genus and number of boundaries are fixed. Our result corrects an error in a paper of Erickson and HarPeled.
Multiplesource shortest paths in embedded graphs
, 2012
"... Let G be a directed graph with n vertices and nonnegative weights in its directed edges, embedded on a surface of genus g, and let f be an arbitrary face of G. We describe an algorithm to preprocess the graph in O(gn log n) time, so that the shortestpath distance from any vertex on the boundary of ..."
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Cited by 7 (5 self)
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Let G be a directed graph with n vertices and nonnegative weights in its directed edges, embedded on a surface of genus g, and let f be an arbitrary face of G. We describe an algorithm to preprocess the graph in O(gn log n) time, so that the shortestpath distance from any vertex on the boundary of f to any other vertex in G can be retrieved in O(log n) time. Our result directly generalizes the O(n log n)time algorithm of Klein [Multiplesource shortest paths in planar graphs. In Proc. 16th Ann. ACMSIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms, 2005] for multiplesource shortest paths in planar graphs. Intuitively, our preprocessing algorithm maintains a shortestpath tree as its source point moves continuously around the boundary of f. As an application of our algorithm, we describe algorithms to compute a shortest noncontractible or nonseparating cycle in embedded, undirected graphs in O(g² n log n) time.
OutputSensitive Algorithm for the EdgeWidth of an Embedded Graph
, 2010
"... Let G be an unweighted graph of complexity n cellularly embedded in a surface (orientable or not) of genus g. We describe improved algorithms to compute (the length of) a shortest noncontractible and a shortest nonseparating cycle of G. If k is an integer, we can compute such a nontrivial cycle w ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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Let G be an unweighted graph of complexity n cellularly embedded in a surface (orientable or not) of genus g. We describe improved algorithms to compute (the length of) a shortest noncontractible and a shortest nonseparating cycle of G. If k is an integer, we can compute such a nontrivial cycle with length at most k in O(gnk) time, or correctly report that no such cycle exists. In particular, on a fixed surface, we can test in linear time whether the edgewidth or facewidth of a graph is bounded from above by a constant. This also implies an outputsensitive algorithm to compute a shortest nontrivial cycle that runs in O(gnk) time, where k is the length of the cycle.
Finding cycles with topological properties in embedded graphs
, 2010
"... Let G be a graph cellularly embedded on a surface. We consider the problem of determining whether G contains a cycle (i.e. a closed walk without repeated vertices) of a certain topological type. We show that the problem can be answered in linear time when the topological type is one of the following ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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Let G be a graph cellularly embedded on a surface. We consider the problem of determining whether G contains a cycle (i.e. a closed walk without repeated vertices) of a certain topological type. We show that the problem can be answered in linear time when the topological type is one of the following: contractible, noncontractible, or nonseparating. In either case we obtain the same time complexity if we require the cycle to contain a given vertex. On the other hand, we prove that the problem is NPcomplete when considering separating or splitting cycles. We also show that deciding the existence of a separating or a splitting cycle of length at most k is fixedparameter tractable with respect tok plus the genus of the surface.
Shortest nontrivial cycles in directed surface graphs
 In Proc. 27th Ann. Symp. Comput. Geom
, 2011
"... Let G be a directed graph embedded on a surface of genus g. We describe an algorithm to compute the shortest nonseparating cycle in G in O(g 2 n log n) time, exactly matching the fastest algorithm known for undirected graphs. We also describe an algorithm to compute the shortest noncontractible cy ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Let G be a directed graph embedded on a surface of genus g. We describe an algorithm to compute the shortest nonseparating cycle in G in O(g 2 n log n) time, exactly matching the fastest algorithm known for undirected graphs. We also describe an algorithm to compute the shortest noncontractible cycle in G in g O(g) n log n time, matching the fastest algorithm for undirected graphs of constant genus.
Global Minimum Cuts in Surface Embedded Graphs
"... We give a deterministic algorithm to find the minimum cut in a surfaceembedded graph in nearlinear time. Given an undirected graph embedded on an orientable surface of genus g, our algorithm computes the minimum cut in g O(g) n log log n time, matching the running time of the fastest algorithm kno ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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We give a deterministic algorithm to find the minimum cut in a surfaceembedded graph in nearlinear time. Given an undirected graph embedded on an orientable surface of genus g, our algorithm computes the minimum cut in g O(g) n log log n time, matching the running time of the fastest algorithm known for planar graphs, due to Ł ˛acki and Sankowski, for any constant g. Indeed, our algorithm calls Ł ˛acki and Sankowski’s recent O(n log log n) time planar algorithm as a subroutine. Previously, the best time bounds known for this problem followed from two algorithms for general sparse graphs: a randomized algorithm of Karger that runs in O(n log 3 n) time and succeeds with high probability, and a deterministic algorithm of Nagamochi and Ibaraki that runs in O(n 2 log n) time. We can also achieve a deterministic g O(g) n 2 log log n time bound by repeatedly applying the best known algorithm for minimum (s, t)cuts in surface graphs. The bulk of our work focuses on the case where the dual of the minimum cut splits the underlying surface into multiple components with positive genus. 1
Faster shortest noncontractible cycles in directed surface graphs
 CoRR
"... Let G be a directed graph embedded on a surface of genus g with b boundary cycles. We describe an algorithm to compute the shortest noncontractible cycle in G in O((g 3 + g b)n log n) time. Our algorithm improves the previous best known time bound of (g + b) O(g+b) n log n for all positive g and b. ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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Let G be a directed graph embedded on a surface of genus g with b boundary cycles. We describe an algorithm to compute the shortest noncontractible cycle in G in O((g 3 + g b)n log n) time. Our algorithm improves the previous best known time bound of (g + b) O(g+b) n log n for all positive g and b. We also describe an algorithm to compute the shortest nonnullhomologous cycle in G in O((g 2 + g b)n log n) time, generalizing a known algorithm to compute the shortest nonseparating cycle.