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36
Graph Drawing by Forcedirected Placement
, 1991
"... this paper, we introduce an algorithm that attempts to produce aestheticallypleasing, twodimensional pictures of graphs by doing simplified simulations of physical systems. We are concerned with drawing undirected graphs according to some generally accepted aesthetic criteria: 1. Distribute the v ..."
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Cited by 431 (0 self)
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this paper, we introduce an algorithm that attempts to produce aestheticallypleasing, twodimensional pictures of graphs by doing simplified simulations of physical systems. We are concerned with drawing undirected graphs according to some generally accepted aesthetic criteria: 1. Distribute the vertices evenly in the frame. 2. Minimize edge crossings. 3. Make edge lengths uniform. 4. Reflect inherent symmetry. 5. Conform to the frame. Our algorithm does not explicitly strive for these goals, but does well at distributing vertices evenly, making edge lengths uniform, and reflecting symmetry. Our goals for the implementation are speed and simplicity. PREVIOUS WORK Our algorithm for drawing undirected graphs is based on the work of Eades which, in turn, evolved from a VLSI technique called forcedirected placement
Generic Global Placement and Floorplanning
, 1998
"... We present a new force directed method for global placement. Besides the wellknown wire length dependent forces we use additional forces to reduce cell overlaps and to consider the placement area. Compared to existing approaches, the main advantage is that the algorithm provides increased flexibili ..."
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Cited by 170 (3 self)
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We present a new force directed method for global placement. Besides the wellknown wire length dependent forces we use additional forces to reduce cell overlaps and to consider the placement area. Compared to existing approaches, the main advantage is that the algorithm provides increased flexibility and enables a variety of demanding applications. Our algorithm is capable of addressing the problems of global placement, floorplanning, timing minimization and interaction to logic synthesis. Among the considered objective functions are area, timing, congestion and heat distribution. The iterative nature of the algorithm assures that timing requirements are precisely met. While showing similar CPU time requirements it outperforms Gordian by an average of 6 percent and TimberWolf by an average of 8 percent in wire length and yields significantly better timing results. 1 Introduction Automated cell placement for VLSI circuits has always been a key factor for achieving designs with optimi...
A fast adaptive layout algorithm for undirected graphs
, 1995
"... Abstract. We present a randomized adaptive layout algorithm for nicely drawing undirected graphs that is based on the springembedder paradigm and contains several new heuristics to improve the convergence, including local temperatures, gravitational forces and the detection of rotations and oscilla ..."
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Cited by 103 (1 self)
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Abstract. We present a randomized adaptive layout algorithm for nicely drawing undirected graphs that is based on the springembedder paradigm and contains several new heuristics to improve the convergence, including local temperatures, gravitational forces and the detection of rotations and oscillations. The proposed algorithm achieves drawings of high quality on a wide range of graphs with standard settings. Moreover, the algorithm is fast, being thus applicable on general undirected graphs of substantially larger size and complexity than before [9, 6, 3]. Aesthetically pleasing solutions are found in most cases. We give empirical data for the running time of the algorithm and the quality of the computed layouts. 1
VLSI cell placement techniques
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1991
"... VLSI cell placement problem is known to be NP complete. A wide repertoire of heuristic algorithms exists in the literature for efficiently arranging the logic cells on a VLSI chip. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive survey of the various cell placement techniques, with emphasi ..."
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Cited by 75 (0 self)
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VLSI cell placement problem is known to be NP complete. A wide repertoire of heuristic algorithms exists in the literature for efficiently arranging the logic cells on a VLSI chip. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive survey of the various cell placement techniques, with emphasis on standard ce11and macro
A Multidimensional Approach to ForceDirected Layouts of Large Graphs
, 2000
"... Abstract. We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or thr ..."
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Cited by 36 (5 self)
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Abstract. We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or three dimensional subspace of E. Projecting highdimensional drawings onto two or three dimensions often results in drawings that are “smoother ” and more symmetric. Among the other notable features of our approach are the utilization of a maximal independent set filtration of the set of vertices of a graph, a fast energy function minimization strategy, efficient memory management, and an intelligent initial placement of vertices. Our implementation of the algorithm can draw graphs with tens of thousands of vertices using a negligible amount of memory in less than one minute on a midrange PC. 1
Algorithms for Cluster Busting in Anchored Graph Drawing
 Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications
, 1998
"... Given a graph G and a drawing or layout of G, it is sometimes desirable to alter or adjust the layout. The challenging aspect of designing layout adjustment algorithms is to maintain a user's mental picture of the original layout. We present a new approach to layout adjustment called cluster busting ..."
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Cited by 34 (0 self)
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Given a graph G and a drawing or layout of G, it is sometimes desirable to alter or adjust the layout. The challenging aspect of designing layout adjustment algorithms is to maintain a user's mental picture of the original layout. We present a new approach to layout adjustment called cluster busting in anchored graph drawing. We then give two algorithms as examples of this approach. The goals of cluster busting in anchored graph drawing are to more evenly distribute the nodes of the graph in a drawing window while maintaining the user's mental picture of the original drawing. We present simple and eÆcient iterative heuristics to accomplish these goals. We formally de ne some measures of distribution and similarity and give empirical results based on these measures to quantify our methods. The theoretical analysis of our heuristics presents a formidable challenge, thus justifying our empirical analysis. Communicated by G. Di Battista: submitted April 1996; revised March 1998. Research...
A Fast MultiDimensional Algorithm for Drawing Large Graphs
 In Graph Drawing’00 Conference Proceedings
, 2000
"... We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or three dimensi ..."
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Cited by 28 (4 self)
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We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or three dimensional subspace of E. Projecting highdimensional drawings onto two or three dimensions often results in drawings that are "smoother" and more symmetric. Among the other notable features of our approach are the utilization of a maximal independent set filtration of the set of vertices of a graph, a fast energy function minimization strategy, e#cient memory management, and an intelligent initial placement of vertices. Our implementation of the algorithm can draw graphs with tens of thousands of vertices using a negligible amount of memory in less than one minute on a midrange PC. 1 Introduction Graphs are common in many applications, from data structures to networks, from software engineering...
Cluster Stability and the Use of Noise in Interpretation of Clustering
, 2001
"... A clustering and ordination algorithm suitable for mining extremely large databases, including those produced by microarray expression studies, is described and analyzed for stability. Data from a yeast cell cycle experiment with 6000 genes and 18 experimental measurements per gene are used to test ..."
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Cited by 22 (9 self)
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A clustering and ordination algorithm suitable for mining extremely large databases, including those produced by microarray expression studies, is described and analyzed for stability. Data from a yeast cell cycle experiment with 6000 genes and 18 experimental measurements per gene are used to test this algorithm under practical conditions. The process of assigning database objects to an X, Y coordinate, ordination, is shown to be stable with respect to random starting conditions, and with respect to minor perturbations in the starting similarity estimates. Careful analysis of the way clusters typically colocate, versus the occasional large displacements under different starting conditions are shown to be useful in interpreting the data. This extra stability information is lost when only a single cluster is reported, which is currently the accepted practice. However, it is believed that the approaches presented here should become a standard part of best practices in analyzing computer clustering of large data collections.
A Practical Approach to Drawing Undirected Graphs
, 1994
"... Although there is extensive research on drawing graphs, none of the published methods are satisfactory for drawing general undirected graphs. Generating drawings which are optimal with respect to several aesthetic criteria is known to be NPhard, so all published approaches to the problem have used ..."
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Cited by 21 (2 self)
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Although there is extensive research on drawing graphs, none of the published methods are satisfactory for drawing general undirected graphs. Generating drawings which are optimal with respect to several aesthetic criteria is known to be NPhard, so all published approaches to the problem have used heuristics. These heuristics are too slow to be practical for graphs of moderate size, and they do not produce consistently good drawings for general graphs. Moreover, they rely on general optimization methods, because problemspecific methods require a deeper theoretical understanding of the graph drawing problem. This paper presents an algorithm to generate twodimensional drawings of undirected graphs. The algorithm uses a combination of heuristics to obtain drawings which are nearoptimal with respect to an aesthetic cost function. The algorithm is incremental in nature, but preprocesses the graph to determine an order for node placement. The algorithm uses a local optimization strategy...
A Numerical Optimization Approach to General Graph Drawing
, 1999
"... Graphs are ubiquitous, finding applications in domains ranging from software engineering to computational biology. While graph theory and graph algorithms are some of the oldest, most studied fields in computer science, the problem of visualizing graphs is comparatively young. This problem, known as ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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Graphs are ubiquitous, finding applications in domains ranging from software engineering to computational biology. While graph theory and graph algorithms are some of the oldest, most studied fields in computer science, the problem of visualizing graphs is comparatively young. This problem, known as graph drawing, is that of transforming combinatorial graphs into geometric drawings for the purpose of visualization. Most published algorithms for drawing general graphs model the drawing problem with a physical analogy, representing a graph as a system of springs and other physical elements and then simulating the relaxation of this physical system. Solving the graph drawing problem involves both choosing a physical model and then using numerical optimization to simulate the physical system. In this