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24
Algorithms for simultaneous sparse approximation. Part II: Convex relaxation
, 2004
"... Abstract. A simultaneous sparse approximation problem requests a good approximation of several input signals at once using different linear combinations of the same elementary signals. At the same time, the problem balances the error in approximation against the total number of elementary signals th ..."
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Cited by 205 (3 self)
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Abstract. A simultaneous sparse approximation problem requests a good approximation of several input signals at once using different linear combinations of the same elementary signals. At the same time, the problem balances the error in approximation against the total number of elementary signals that participate. These elementary signals typically model coherent structures in the input signals, and they are chosen from a large, linearly dependent collection. The first part of this paper proposes a greedy pursuit algorithm, called Simultaneous Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, for simultaneous sparse approximation. Then it presents some numerical experiments that demonstrate how a sparse model for the input signals can be identified more reliably given several input signals. Afterward, the paper proves that the SOMP algorithm can compute provably good solutions to several simultaneous sparse approximation problems. The second part of the paper develops another algorithmic approach called convex relaxation, and it provides theoretical results on the performance of convex relaxation for simultaneous sparse approximation. Date: Typeset on March 17, 2005. Key words and phrases. Greedy algorithms, Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, multiple measurement vectors, simultaneous
Just relax: Convex programming methods for subset selection and sparse approximation
, 2004
"... Abstract. Subset selection and sparse approximation problems request a good approximation of an input signal using a linear combination of elementary signals, yet they stipulate that the approximation may only involve a few of the elementary signals. This class of problems arises throughout electric ..."
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Cited by 90 (4 self)
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Abstract. Subset selection and sparse approximation problems request a good approximation of an input signal using a linear combination of elementary signals, yet they stipulate that the approximation may only involve a few of the elementary signals. This class of problems arises throughout electrical engineering, applied mathematics and statistics, but small theoretical progress has been made over the last fifty years. Subset selection and sparse approximation both admit natural convex relaxations, but the literature contains few results on the behavior of these relaxations for general input signals. This report demonstrates that the solution of the convex program frequently coincides with the solution of the original approximation problem. The proofs depend essentially on geometric properties of the ensemble of elementary signals. The results are powerful because sparse approximation problems are combinatorial, while convex programs can be solved in polynomial time with standard software. Comparable new results for a greedy algorithm, Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, are also stated. This report should have a major practical impact because the theory applies immediately to many realworld signal processing problems. 1.
Highdimensional graphical model selection using ℓ1regularized logistic regression
 Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 19
, 2007
"... We consider the problem of estimating the graph structure associated with a discrete Markov random field. We describe a method based on ℓ1regularized logistic regression, in which the neighborhood of any given node is estimated by performing logistic regression subject to an ℓ1constraint. Our fram ..."
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Cited by 72 (5 self)
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We consider the problem of estimating the graph structure associated with a discrete Markov random field. We describe a method based on ℓ1regularized logistic regression, in which the neighborhood of any given node is estimated by performing logistic regression subject to an ℓ1constraint. Our framework applies to the highdimensional setting, in which both the number of nodes p and maximum neighborhood sizes d are allowed to grow as a function of the number of observations n. Our main results provide sufficient conditions on the triple (n, p, d) for the method to succeed in consistently estimating the neighborhood of every node in the graph simultaneously. Under certain assumptions on the population Fisher information matrix, we prove that consistent neighborhood selection can be obtained for sample sizes n = Ω(d 3 log p), with the error decaying as O(exp(−Cn/d 3)) for some constant C. If these same assumptions are imposed directly on the sample matrices, we show that n = Ω(d 2 log p) samples are sufficient.
From theory to practice: SubNyquist sampling of sparse wideband analog signals
 IEEE J. SEL. TOPICS SIGNAL PROCESS
, 2010
"... Conventional subNyquist sampling methods for analog signals exploit prior information about the spectral support. In this paper, we consider the challenging problem of blind subNyquist sampling of multiband signals, whose unknown frequency support occupies only a small portion of a wide spectrum. ..."
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Cited by 64 (38 self)
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Conventional subNyquist sampling methods for analog signals exploit prior information about the spectral support. In this paper, we consider the challenging problem of blind subNyquist sampling of multiband signals, whose unknown frequency support occupies only a small portion of a wide spectrum. Our primary design goals are efficient hardware implementation and low computational load on the supporting digital processing. We propose a system, named the modulated wideband converter, which first multiplies the analog signal by a bank of periodic waveforms. The product is then lowpass filtered and sampled uniformly at a low rate, which is orders of magnitude smaller than Nyquist. Perfect recovery from the proposed samples is achieved under certain necessary and sufficient conditions. We also develop a digital architecture, which allows either reconstruction of the analog input, or processing of any band of interest at a low rate, that is, without interpolating to the high Nyquist rate. Numerical simulations demonstrate many engineering aspects: robustness to noise and mismodeling, potential hardware simplifications, realtime performance for signals with timevarying support and stability to quantization effects. We compare our system with two previous approaches: periodic nonuniform sampling, which is bandwidth limited by existing hardware devices, and the random demodulator, which is restricted to discrete multitone signals and has a high computational load. In the broader context of Nyquist sampling, our scheme has the potential to break through the bandwidth barrier of stateoftheart analog conversion technologies such as interleaved converters.
Reduce and Boost: Recovering Arbitrary Sets of Jointly Sparse Vectors
, 2008
"... The rapid developing area of compressed sensing suggests that a sparse vector lying in a high dimensional space can be accurately and efficiently recovered from only a small set of nonadaptive linear measurements, under appropriate conditions on the measurement matrix. The vector model has been ext ..."
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Cited by 60 (35 self)
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The rapid developing area of compressed sensing suggests that a sparse vector lying in a high dimensional space can be accurately and efficiently recovered from only a small set of nonadaptive linear measurements, under appropriate conditions on the measurement matrix. The vector model has been extended both theoretically and practically to a finite set of sparse vectors sharing a common sparsity pattern. In this paper, we treat a broader framework in which the goal is to recover a possibly infinite set of jointly sparse vectors. Extending existing algorithms to this model is difficult due to the infinite structure of the sparse vector set. Instead, we prove that the entire infinite set of sparse vectors can be recovered by solving a single, reducedsize finitedimensional problem, corresponding to recovery of a finite set of sparse vectors. We then show that the problem can be further reduced to the basic model of a single sparse vector by randomly combining the measurements. Our approach is exact for both countable and uncountable sets as it does not rely on discretization or heuristic techniques. To efficiently find the single sparse vector produced by the last reduction step, we suggest an empirical boosting strategy that improves the recovery ability of any given suboptimal method for recovering a sparse vector. Numerical experiments on random data demonstrate that when applied to infinite sets our strategy outperforms discretization techniques in terms of both run time and empirical recovery rate. In the finite model, our boosting algorithm has fast run time and much higher recovery rate than known popular methods.
Blind Multiband Signal Reconstruction: Compressed Sensing for Analog Signals
"... We address the problem of reconstructing a multiband signal from its subNyquist pointwise samples, when the band locations are unknown. Our approach assumes an existing multicoset sampling. Prior recovery methods for this sampling strategy either require knowledge of band locations or impose stric ..."
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Cited by 54 (44 self)
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We address the problem of reconstructing a multiband signal from its subNyquist pointwise samples, when the band locations are unknown. Our approach assumes an existing multicoset sampling. Prior recovery methods for this sampling strategy either require knowledge of band locations or impose strict limitations on the possible spectral supports. In this paper, only the number of bands and their widths are assumed without any other limitations on the support. We describe how to choose the parameters of the multicoset sampling so that a unique multiband signal matches the given samples. To recover the signal, the continuous reconstruction is replaced by a single finitedimensional problem without the need for discretization. The resulting problem is studied within the framework of compressed sensing, and thus can be solved efficiently using known tractable algorithms from this emerging area. We also develop a theoretical lower bound on the average sampling rate required for blind signal reconstruction, which is twice the minimal rate of knownspectrum recovery. Our method ensures perfect reconstruction for a wide class of signals sampled at the minimal rate. Numerical experiments are presented demonstrating blind sampling and reconstruction with minimal sampling rate.
Compressed Sensing of Analog Signals in ShiftInvariant Spaces
, 2009
"... A traditional assumption underlying most data converters is that the signal should be sampled at a rate exceeding twice the highest frequency. This statement is based on a worstcase scenario in which the signal occupies the entire available bandwidth. In practice, many signals are sparse so that on ..."
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Cited by 47 (30 self)
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A traditional assumption underlying most data converters is that the signal should be sampled at a rate exceeding twice the highest frequency. This statement is based on a worstcase scenario in which the signal occupies the entire available bandwidth. In practice, many signals are sparse so that only part of the bandwidth is used. In this paper, we develop methods for lowrate sampling of continuoustime sparse signals in shiftinvariant (SI) spaces, generated by m kernels with period T. We model sparsity by treating the case in which only k out of the m generators are active, however, we do not know which k are chosen. We show how to sample such signals at a rate much lower than m/T, which is the minimal sampling rate without exploiting sparsity. Our approach combines ideas from analog sampling in a subspace with a recently developed block diagram that converts an infinite set of sparse equations to a finite counterpart. Using these two components we formulate our problem within the framework of finite compressed sensing (CS) and then rely on algorithms developed in that context. The distinguishing feature of our results is that in contrast to standard CS, which treats finitelength vectors, we consider sampling of analog signals for which no underlying finitedimensional model exists. The proposed framework allows to extend much of the recent literature on CS to the analog domain.
On the conditioning of random subdictionaries
 Appl. Comput. Harmonic Anal
"... Abstract. An important problem in the theory of sparse approximation is to identify wellconditioned subsets of vectors from a general dictionary. In most cases, current results do not apply unless the number of vectors is smaller than the square root of the ambient dimension, so these bounds are too ..."
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Cited by 46 (5 self)
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Abstract. An important problem in the theory of sparse approximation is to identify wellconditioned subsets of vectors from a general dictionary. In most cases, current results do not apply unless the number of vectors is smaller than the square root of the ambient dimension, so these bounds are too weak for many applications. This paper shatters the squareroot bottleneck by focusing on random subdictionaries instead of arbitrary subdictionaries. It provides explicit bounds on the extreme singular values of random subdictionaries that hold with overwhelming probability. The results are phrased in terms of the coherence and spectral norm of the dictionary, which capture information about its global geometry. The proofs rely on standard tools from the area of Banach space probability. As an application, the paper shows that the conditioning of a subdictionary is the major obstacle to the uniqueness of sparse representations and the success of ℓ1 minimization techniques for signal recovery. Indeed, if a fixed subdictionary is well conditioned and its cardinality is slightly smaller than the ambient dimension, then a random signal formed from this subdictionary almost surely has no other representation that is equally sparse. Moreover, with overwhelming probability, the maximally sparse representation can be identified via ℓ1 minimization. Note that the results in this paper are not directly comparable with recent work on subdictionaries of random dictionaries. 1.
HIGHDIMENSIONAL ISING MODEL SELECTION USING ℓ1REGULARIZED LOGISTIC REGRESSION
 SUBMITTED TO THE ANNALS OF STATISTICS
"... We consider the problem of estimating the graph associated with a binary Ising Markov random field. We describe a method based on ℓ1regularized logistic regression, in which the neighborhood of any given node is estimated by performing logistic regression subject to an ℓ1constraint. The method is ..."
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Cited by 37 (12 self)
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We consider the problem of estimating the graph associated with a binary Ising Markov random field. We describe a method based on ℓ1regularized logistic regression, in which the neighborhood of any given node is estimated by performing logistic regression subject to an ℓ1constraint. The method is analyzed under highdimensional scaling, in which both the number of nodes p and maximum neighborhood size d are allowed to grow as a function of the number of observations n. Our main results provide sufficient conditions on the triple (n, p, d) and the model parameters for the method to succeed in consistently estimating the neighborhood of every node in the graph simultaneously. With coherence conditions imposed on the population Fisher information matrix, we prove that consistent neighborhood selection can be obtained for sample sizes n = Ω(d 3 log p), with exponentially decaying error. When these same conditions are imposed directly on the sample matrices, we show that a reduced sample size of n = Ω(d 2 log p) suffices for the method to estimate neighborhoods consistently. Although this paper focuses on the binary graphical models, we indicate how a generalization of the method of the paper would apply to general discrete Markov random fields.