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26
The algorithmic aspects of the Regularity Lemma
 J. Algorithms
, 1994
"... The Regularity Lemma of Szemerédi is a result that asserts that every graph can be partitioned in a certain regular way. This result has numerous applications, but its known proof is not algorithmic. Here we first demonstrate the computational difficulty of finding a regular partition; we show that ..."
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Cited by 97 (29 self)
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The Regularity Lemma of Szemerédi is a result that asserts that every graph can be partitioned in a certain regular way. This result has numerous applications, but its known proof is not algorithmic. Here we first demonstrate the computational difficulty of finding a regular partition; we show that deciding if a given partition of an input graph satisfies the properties guaranteed by the lemma is coNPcomplete. However, we also prove that despite this difficulty the lemma can be made constructive; we show how to obtain, for any input graph, a partition with the properties guaranteed by the lemma, efficiently. The desired partition, for an nvertex graph, can be found in time O(M(n)), where M(n) = O(n 2.376) is the time needed to multiply two n by n matrices with 0, 1entries over the integers. The algorithm can be parallelized and implemented in NC 1. Besides the curious phenomenon of exhibiting a natural problem in which the search for a solution is easy whereas the decision if a given instance is a solution is difficult (if P and NP differ), our constructive version of the Regularity Lemma supplies efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for many problems, some of which are naturally motivated by the study of various graph embedding and graph coloring problems.
An application of boolean complexity to separation problems in bounded arithmetic
 Proc. London Math. Society
, 1994
"... We develop a method for establishing the independence of some Zf(a)formulas from S'2(a). In particular, we show that T'2(a) is not VZ*(a)conservative over S'2(a). We characterize the Z^definable functions of T2 as being precisely the functions definable as projections of polynomial ..."
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Cited by 58 (15 self)
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We develop a method for establishing the independence of some Zf(a)formulas from S'2(a). In particular, we show that T'2(a) is not VZ*(a)conservative over S'2(a). We characterize the Z^definable functions of T2 as being precisely the functions definable as projections of polynomial local search (PLS) problems. Although it is still an open problem whether bounded arithmetic S2 is finitely axiomatizable, considerable progress on this question has been made: S2 +1 is V2f+1conservative over T'2 [3], but it is not V2!f+2conservative unless £f+2 = Ylf+2 [10], and in addition, T2 is not VZf+1conservative over S'2 unless LogSpace s? = Af+1 [8]. In particular, S2 is not finitely axiomatizable provided that the polynomialtime hierarchy does not collapse [10]. For the theory S2(a) these results imply (with some additional arguments) absolute results: S'2 + (a) is V2f+,(a)conservative but not VZf+2(a)conservative over T'2(a), and T'2(a) is not VZf+i(c*)conservative over S'2(a). Here a represents a new uninterpreted predicate symbol adjoined to the language of arithmetic which may be used in induction formulas; from a computer science perspective, a represents an oracle. In this paper we pursue this line of investigation further by showing that T'2(a) is also not V2f(a)conservative over S'2(a). This was known for / = 1, 2 by [9,17] (see also [2]), and our present proof uses a version of the pigeonhole principle similar to the arguments in [2,9]. Perhaps more importantly, we formulate a general method (Theorem 2.6) which can be used to show the unprovability of other 2f(a)formulas from S'2(a). Our methods are analogous in spirit to the proof strategy of [8]: prove a witnessing theorem to show that provability of a Zf+1(a)formula A in S'2(a) implies that it is witnessed by a function of certain complexity and then employ techniques of boolean complexity to construct an oracle a such that the formula A cannot be witnessed by a function of the prescribed complexity. Our formula A shall be 2f(a) and thus we can use the original witnessing theorem of [2]. The boolean complexity used is the same as in [8], namely Hastad's switching lemmas [6].
Witnessing Functions in Bounded Arithmetic and Search Problems
, 1994
"... We investigate the possibility to characterize (multi)functions that are \Sigma b i definable with small i (i = 1; 2; 3) in fragments of bounded arithmetic T2 in terms of natural search problems defined over polynomialtime structures. We obtain the following results: 1. A reformulation of known ..."
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Cited by 35 (3 self)
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We investigate the possibility to characterize (multi)functions that are \Sigma b i definable with small i (i = 1; 2; 3) in fragments of bounded arithmetic T2 in terms of natural search problems defined over polynomialtime structures. We obtain the following results: 1. A reformulation of known characterizations of (multi)functions that are \Sigma b 1  and \Sigma b 2 definable in the theories S 1 2 and T 1 2 . 2. New characterizations of (multi)functions that are \Sigma b 2  and \Sigma b 3  definable in the theory T 2 2 . 3. A new nonconservation result: the theory T 2 2 (ff) is not 8\Sigma b 1 (ff) conservative over the theory S 2 2 (ff). To prove that the theory T 2 2 (ff) is not 8\Sigma b 1 (ff)conservative over the theory S 2 2 (ff), we present two examples of a \Sigma b 1 (ff)principle separating the two theories: (a) the weak pigeonhole principle WPHP (a 2 ; f; g) formalizing that no function f is a bijection between a 2 and a with the inverse...
Computing sequential equilibria for twoplayer games
 In SODA ’06
, 2006
"... Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for twoplayer extensiveform zerosum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Koller and Pfeffer pointed out that the strategies obtai ..."
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Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for twoplayer extensiveform zerosum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Koller and Pfeffer pointed out that the strategies obtained by the algorithm are not necessarily sequentially rational and that this deficiency is often problematic for the practical applications. We show how to remove this deficiency by modifying the linear programs constructed by Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel so that pairs of strategies forming a sequential equilibrium are computed. In particular, we show that a sequential equilibrium for a twoplayer zerosum game with imperfect information but perfect recall can be found in polynomial time. In addition, the equilibrium we find is normalform perfect. Our technique generalizes to generalsum games, yielding an algorithm for such games which is likely to be prove practical, even though it is not polynomialtime. 1
Polynomialsize Frege and Resolution Proofs of stConnectivity and Hex Tautologies
 Theorectical Computer Science
, 2003
"... A grid graph has rectangularly arranged vertices with edges permitted only between orthogonally adjacent vertices. The stconnectivity principle states that it is not possible to have a red path of edges and a green path of edges which connect diagonally opposite corners of the grid graph unless ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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A grid graph has rectangularly arranged vertices with edges permitted only between orthogonally adjacent vertices. The stconnectivity principle states that it is not possible to have a red path of edges and a green path of edges which connect diagonally opposite corners of the grid graph unless the paths cross somewhere.
On Algorithms for Discrete and Approximate Brouwer Fixed Points
 In STOC 2005
, 2005
"... We study the algorithmic complexity of the discrete fixed point problem and develop an asymptotic matching bound for a cube in any constantly bounded finite dimension. To obtain our upper bound, we derive a new fixed point theorem, based on a novel characterization of boundary conditions for the exi ..."
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We study the algorithmic complexity of the discrete fixed point problem and develop an asymptotic matching bound for a cube in any constantly bounded finite dimension. To obtain our upper bound, we derive a new fixed point theorem, based on a novel characterization of boundary conditions for the existence of fixed points. In addition, exploring a linkage with the approximation problem of the continuous fixed point problem, we obtain asymptotic matching bounds for complexity of the approximate Brouwer fixed point problem in the continuous case for Lipschitz functions that close a previous exponential gap. It settles a fifteen years old open problem of Hirsch, Papadimitriou and Vavasis by improving both the upper and lower bounds. Our new characterization for existence of a fixed point is also applicable to functions defined on nonconvex domain and makes it a potentially useful tool for design and analysis of algorithms for fixed points in general domain.
Bounded Arithmetic and Propositional Proof Complexity
 in Logic of Computation
, 1995
"... This is a survey of basic facts about bounded arithmetic and about the relationships between bounded arithmetic and propositional proof complexity. We introduce the theories S 2 of bounded arithmetic and characterize their proof theoretic strength and their provably total functions in terms of t ..."
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This is a survey of basic facts about bounded arithmetic and about the relationships between bounded arithmetic and propositional proof complexity. We introduce the theories S 2 of bounded arithmetic and characterize their proof theoretic strength and their provably total functions in terms of the polynomial time hierarchy. We discuss other axiomatizations of bounded arithmetic, such as minimization axioms. It is shown that the bounded arithmetic hierarchy collapses if and only if bounded arithmetic proves that the polynomial hierarchy collapses. We discuss Frege and extended Frege proof length, and the two translations from bounded arithmetic proofs into propositional proofs. We present some theorems on bounding the lengths of propositional interpolants in terms of cutfree proof length and in terms of the lengths of resolution refutations. We then define the RazborovRudich notion of natural proofs of P NP and discuss Razborov's theorem that certain fragments of bounded arithmetic cannot prove superpolynomial lower bounds on circuit size, assuming a strong cryptographic conjecture. Finally, a complete presentation of a proof of the theorem of Razborov is given. 1 Review of Computational Complexity 1.1 Feasibility This article will be concerned with various "feasible" forms of computability and of provability. For something to be feasibly computable, it must be computable in practice in the real world, not merely e#ectively computable in the sense of being recursively computable.
Search problems in the decision tree model
 SIAM JOURNAL ON DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
, 1995
"... We study the relative power of determinism, randomness and nondeterminism for search problems in the Boolean decision tree model. We show that the gaps between the nondeterministic, the randomized and the deterministic complexities can be arbitrary large for search problems. We also mention an inter ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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We study the relative power of determinism, randomness and nondeterminism for search problems in the Boolean decision tree model. We show that the gaps between the nondeterministic, the randomized and the deterministic complexities can be arbitrary large for search problems. We also mention an interesting connection of this model to the complexity of resolution proofs.