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383
Visualizing Data using tSNE
, 2008
"... We present a new technique called “tSNE” that visualizes highdimensional data by giving each datapoint a location in a two or threedimensional map. The technique is a variation of Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (Hinton and Roweis, 2002) that is much easier to optimize, and produces significantly b ..."
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Cited by 272 (13 self)
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We present a new technique called “tSNE” that visualizes highdimensional data by giving each datapoint a location in a two or threedimensional map. The technique is a variation of Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (Hinton and Roweis, 2002) that is much easier to optimize, and produces significantly better visualizations by reducing the tendency to crowd points together in the center of the map. tSNE is better than existing techniques at creating a single map that reveals structure at many different scales. This is particularly important for highdimensional data that lie on several different, but related, lowdimensional manifolds, such as images of objects from multiple classes seen from multiple viewpoints. For visualizing the structure of very large data sets, we show how tSNE can use random walks on neighborhood graphs to allow the implicit structure of all of the data to influence the way in which a subset of the data is displayed. We illustrate the performance of tSNE on a wide variety of data sets and compare it with many other nonparametric visualization techniques, including Sammon mapping, Isomap, and Locally Linear Embedding. The visualizations produced by tSNE are significantly better than those produced by the other techniques on almost all of the data sets.
A review of statistical approaches to level set segmentation: Integrating color, texture, motion and shape
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 2007
"... Abstract. Since their introduction as a means of front propagation and their first application to edgebased segmentation in the early 90’s, level set methods have become increasingly popular as a general framework for image segmentation. In this paper, we present a survey of a specific class of reg ..."
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Cited by 164 (4 self)
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Abstract. Since their introduction as a means of front propagation and their first application to edgebased segmentation in the early 90’s, level set methods have become increasingly popular as a general framework for image segmentation. In this paper, we present a survey of a specific class of regionbased level set segmentation methods and clarify how they can all be derived from a common statistical framework. Regionbased segmentation schemes aim at partitioning the image domain by progressively fitting statistical models to the intensity, color, texture or motion in each of a set of regions. In contrast to edgebased schemes such as the classical Snakes, regionbased methods tend to be less sensitive to noise. For typical images, the respective cost functionals tend to have less local minima which makes them particularly wellsuited for local optimization methods such as the level set method. We detail a general statistical formulation for level set segmentation. Subsequently, we clarify how the integration of various low level criteria leads to a set of cost functionals and point out relations between the different segmentation schemes. In experimental results, we demonstrate how the level set function is driven to partition the image plane into domains of coherent color, texture, dynamic texture or motion. Moreover, the Bayesian formulation allows to introduce prior shape knowledge into the level set method. We briefly review a number of advances in this domain.
Guided Image Filtering
"... Abstract. In this paper, we propose a novel type of explicit image filter guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter generates the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided fil ..."
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Cited by 141 (1 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, we propose a novel type of explicit image filter guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter generates the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can perform as an edgepreserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but has better behavior near the edges. It also has a theoretical connection with the matting Laplacian matrix [2], so is a more generic concept than a smoothing operator and can better utilize the structures in the guidance image. Moreover, the guidedfilterhasafastandnonapproximatelineartime algorithm, whose computational complexity is independent of the filtering kernel size. We demonstrate that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications including noise reduction, detail smoothing/enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, haze removal, and joint upsampling. 1
Graph cut based image segmentation with connectivity priors
, 2008
"... Graph cut is a popular technique for interactive image segmentation. However, it has certain shortcomings. In particular, graph cut has problems with segmenting thin elongated objects due to the “shrinking bias”. To overcome this problem, we propose to impose an additional connectivity prior, which ..."
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Cited by 106 (8 self)
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Graph cut is a popular technique for interactive image segmentation. However, it has certain shortcomings. In particular, graph cut has problems with segmenting thin elongated objects due to the “shrinking bias”. To overcome this problem, we propose to impose an additional connectivity prior, which is a very natural assumption about objects. We formulate several versions of the connectivity constraint and show that the corresponding optimization problems are all NPhard. For some of these versions we propose two optimization algorithms: (i) a practical heuristic technique which we call DijkstraGC, and (ii) a slow method based on problem decomposition which provides a lower bound on the problem. We use the second technique to verify that for some practical examples DijkstraGC is able to find the global minimum. 1.
Evolving feature selection
 Tuv E., Peng H., Ding C., Long F., Berens M., Parsons L., Zhao Z., Yu L., Forman G
"... twohybrid junk sequences contain ..."
A Seeded Image Segmentation Framework Unifying Graph Cuts And Random Walker Which Yields A New Algorithm
 ICCV
, 2007
"... In this work, we present a common framework for seeded image segmentation algorithms that yields two of the leading methods as special cases The Graph Cuts and the Random Walker algorithms. The formulation of this common framework naturally suggests a new, third, algorithm that we develop here. Spe ..."
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Cited by 94 (9 self)
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In this work, we present a common framework for seeded image segmentation algorithms that yields two of the leading methods as special cases The Graph Cuts and the Random Walker algorithms. The formulation of this common framework naturally suggests a new, third, algorithm that we develop here. Specifically, the former algorithms may be shown to minimize a certain energy with respect to either an ℓ1 or an ℓ2 norm. Here, we explore the segmentation algorithm defined by an ℓ ∞ norm, provide a method for the optimization and show that the resulting algorithm produces an accurate segmentation that demonstrates greater stability with respect to the number of seeds employed than either the Graph Cuts or Random Walker methods.
Optimized color sampling for robust matting
 In In Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
, 2007
"... Image matting is the problem of determining for each pixel in an image whether it is foreground, background, or the mixing parameter, ”alpha”, for those pixels that are a mixture of foreground and background. Matting is inherently an illposed problem. Previous matting approaches either use naive c ..."
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Cited by 75 (5 self)
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Image matting is the problem of determining for each pixel in an image whether it is foreground, background, or the mixing parameter, ”alpha”, for those pixels that are a mixture of foreground and background. Matting is inherently an illposed problem. Previous matting approaches either use naive color sampling methods to estimate foreground and background colors for unknown pixels, or use propagationbased methods to avoid color sampling under weak assumptions about image statistics. We argue that neither method itself is enough to generate good results for complex natural images. We analyze the weaknesses of previous matting approaches, and propose a new robust matting algorithm. In our approach we also sample foreground and background colors for unknown pixels, but more importantly, analyze the confidence of these samples. Only high confidence samples are chosen to contribute to the matting energy function which is minimized by a Random Walk. The energy function we define also contains a neighborhood term to enforce the smoothness of the matte. To validate the approach, we present an extensive and quantitative comparison between our algorithm and a number of previous approaches in hopes of providing a benchmark for future matting research. 1.
Spectralspatial classification of hyperspectral imagery based on partitional clustering techniques
 IEEE TRANS. GEOS. AND REMOTE SENS
, 2009
"... A new spectral–spatial classification scheme for hyperspectral images is proposed. The method combines the results of a pixel wise support vector machine classification and the segmentation map obtained by partitional clustering using majority voting. The ISODATA algorithm and Gaussian mixture reso ..."
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Cited by 64 (14 self)
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A new spectral–spatial classification scheme for hyperspectral images is proposed. The method combines the results of a pixel wise support vector machine classification and the segmentation map obtained by partitional clustering using majority voting. The ISODATA algorithm and Gaussian mixture resolving techniques are used for image clustering. Experimental results are presented for two hyperspectral airborne images. The developed classification scheme improves the classification accuracies and provides classification maps with more homogeneous regions, when compared to pixel wise classification. The proposed method performs particularly well for classification of images with large spatial structures and when different classes have dissimilar spectral responses and a comparable number of pixels.
TVSeg  interactive total variation based image segmentation
 IN: BRITISH MACHINE VISION CONFERENCE (BMVC
, 2008
"... Interactive object extraction is an important part in any image editing software. We present a two step segmentation algorithm that first obtains a binary segmentation and then applies matting on the border regions to obtain a smooth alpha channel. The proposed segmentation algorithm is based on the ..."
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Cited by 55 (17 self)
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Interactive object extraction is an important part in any image editing software. We present a two step segmentation algorithm that first obtains a binary segmentation and then applies matting on the border regions to obtain a smooth alpha channel. The proposed segmentation algorithm is based on the minimization of the Geodesic Active Contour energy. A fast Total Variation minimization algorithm is used to find the globally optimal solution. We show how user interaction can be incorporated and outline an efficient way to exploit color information. A novel matting approach, based on energy minimization, is presented. Experimental evaluations are discussed, and the algorithm is compared to state of the art object extraction algorithms. The GPU based binaries are available online.