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Confluence Properties of Extensional and NonExtensional lambdaCalculi with Explicit Substitutions (Extended Abstract)
 in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Rewriting Techniques and Applications
, 1996
"... ) Delia Kesner CNRS and LRI, B at 490, Universit e ParisSud  91405 Orsay Cedex, France. email:Delia.Kesner@lri.fr Abstract. This paper studies confluence properties of extensional and nonextensional #calculi with explicit substitutions, where extensionality is interpreted by #expansion. For ..."
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Cited by 22 (5 self)
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) Delia Kesner CNRS and LRI, B at 490, Universit e ParisSud  91405 Orsay Cedex, France. email:Delia.Kesner@lri.fr Abstract. This paper studies confluence properties of extensional and nonextensional #calculi with explicit substitutions, where extensionality is interpreted by #expansion. For that, we propose a general scheme for explicit substitutions which describes those abstract properties that are sufficient to guarantee confluence. Our general scheme makes it possible to treat at the same time many wellknown calculi such as ## , ## # and ## , or some other new calculi that we propose in this paper. We also show for those calculi not fitting in the general scheme that can be translated to another one fitting the scheme, such as #s , how to reason about confluence properties of their extensional and nonextensional versions. 1 Introduction The #calculus is a convenient framework to study functional programming, where the evaluation process is modeled by #reduction. The...
Relative Normalization in Deterministic Residual Structures
 In: Proc. of the 19 th International Colloquium on Trees in Algebra and Programming, CAAP'96, Springer LNCS
, 1996
"... . This paper generalizes the Huet and L'evy theory of normalization by neededness to an abstract setting. We define Stable Deterministic Residual Structures (SDRS) and Deterministic Family Structures (DFS) by axiomatizing some properties of the residual relation and the family relation on redexes in ..."
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Cited by 17 (13 self)
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. This paper generalizes the Huet and L'evy theory of normalization by neededness to an abstract setting. We define Stable Deterministic Residual Structures (SDRS) and Deterministic Family Structures (DFS) by axiomatizing some properties of the residual relation and the family relation on redexes in an Abstract Rewriting System. We present two proofs of the Relative Normalization Theorem, one for SDRSs for regular stable sets, and another for DFSs for all stable sets of desirable `normal forms'. We further prove the Relative Optimality Theorem for DFSs. We extend this result to deterministic Computation Structures which are deterministic Event Structures with an extra relation expressing selfessentiality. 1 Introduction A normalizable term, in a rewriting system, may have an infinite reduction, so it is important to have a normalizing strategy which enables one to construct reductions to normal form. It is well known that the leftmostoutermost strategy is normalizing in the calc...
Contextsensitive Conditional Expression Reduction Systems
 In Proc. of the International Workshop on Graph Rewriting and Computation, SEGRAGRA'95
, 1995
"... We introduce Contextsensitive Conditional Expression Reduction Systems (CERS) by extending and generalizing the notion of conditional TRS to the higher order case. We justify our framework in two ways. First, we define orthogonality for CERSs and show that the usual results for orthogonal systems ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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We introduce Contextsensitive Conditional Expression Reduction Systems (CERS) by extending and generalizing the notion of conditional TRS to the higher order case. We justify our framework in two ways. First, we define orthogonality for CERSs and show that the usual results for orthogonal systems (finiteness of developments, confluence, permutation equivalence) carry over immediately. This can be used e.g. to infer confluence from the subject reduction property in several typed calculi possibly enriched with patternmatching definitions. Second, we express several proof and transition systems as CERSs. In particular, we give encodings of Hilbertstyle proof systems, Gentzenstyle sequentcalculi, rewrite systems with rule priorities, and the ßcalculus into CERSs. This last encoding is an (important) example of real contextsensitive rewriting. 1 Introduction A term rewriting system is a pair consisting of an alphabet and a set of rewrite rules. The alphabet is used freely to gene...
Relative Normalization in Orthogonal Expression Reduction Systems
 In: Proc. of the 4 th International workshop on Conditional (and Typed) Term Rewriting Systems, CTRS'94, Springer LNCS
, 1994
"... . We study reductions in orthogonal (leftlinear and nonambiguous) Expression Reduction Systems, a formalism for Term Rewriting Systems with bound variables and substitutions. To generalise the normalization theory of Huet and L'evy, we introduce the notion of neededness with respect to a set of r ..."
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Cited by 11 (10 self)
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. We study reductions in orthogonal (leftlinear and nonambiguous) Expression Reduction Systems, a formalism for Term Rewriting Systems with bound variables and substitutions. To generalise the normalization theory of Huet and L'evy, we introduce the notion of neededness with respect to a set of reductions \Pi or a set of terms S so that each existing notion of neededness can be given by specifying \Pi or S. We imposed natural conditions on S, called stability, that are sufficient and necessary for each term not in Snormal form (i.e., not in S) to have at least one Sneeded redex, and repeated contraction of Sneeded redexes in a term t to lead to an Snormal form of t whenever there is one. Our relative neededness notion is based on tracing (open) components, which are occurrences of contexts not containing any bound variable, rather than tracing redexes or subterms. 1 Introduction Since a normalizable term, in a rewriting system, may have an infinite reduction, it is important to...
Perpetuality and Uniform Normalization in Orthogonal Rewrite Systems
 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION
"... We present two characterizations of perpetual redexes, which are redexes whose contractions retain the possibility of infinite reductions. These characterizations generalize and strengthen existing criteria for the perpetuality of redexes in orthogonal Term Rewriting Systems and the calculus due ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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We present two characterizations of perpetual redexes, which are redexes whose contractions retain the possibility of infinite reductions. These characterizations generalize and strengthen existing criteria for the perpetuality of redexes in orthogonal Term Rewriting Systems and the calculus due to Bergstra and Klop, and others. To unify our results with those in the literature, we introduce Contextsensitive Conditional Expression Reduction Systems (CCERSs) and prove confluence for orthogonal CCERSs. We then define a perpetual onestep reduction strategy which enables one to construct minimal (w.r.t. Levy's permutation ordering on reductions) infinite reductions in orthogonal CCERSs. We then prove (1) perpetuality (in a specific context) of a redex whose contraction does not erase potentially infinite arguments, which are possibly finite (i.e., strongly normalizable) arguments that may become infinite after a number of outside steps, and (2) perpetuality (in every con...
Minimal Relative Normalization in Orthogonal Expression Reduction Systems
 In Proc. of the 16 th International Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, FST&TCS'96, Springer LNCS
, 1996
"... . In previous papers, the authors studied normalization relative to desirable sets S of `partial results', where it is shown that such sets must be stable. For example, the sets of normal forms, headnormalforms, and weak headnormalforms in the calculus, are all stable. They showed that, for an ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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. In previous papers, the authors studied normalization relative to desirable sets S of `partial results', where it is shown that such sets must be stable. For example, the sets of normal forms, headnormalforms, and weak headnormalforms in the calculus, are all stable. They showed that, for any stable S, Sneeded reductions are Snormalizing. This paper continues the investigation into the theory of relative normalization. In particular, we prove existence of minimal normalizing reductions for regular stable sets of results. All the above mentioned sets are regular. We give a sufficient and necessary criterion for a normalizing reduction (w.r.t. a regular stable S) to be minimal. Finally, we establish a relationship between relative minimal and optimal reductions, revealing a conflict between minimality and optimality: for regular stable sets of results, a term need not possess a reduction that is minimal and optimal at the same time. 1 Introduction The Normalization Theorem in ...
Perpetuality and Uniform Normalization
 In Proc. of the 6 th International Conference on Algebraic and Logic Programming, ALP'97
, 1997
"... . We define a perpetual onestep reduction strategy which enables one to construct minimal (w.r.t. L'evy's ordering \Theta on reductions) infinite reductions in Conditional Orthogonal Expression Reduction Systems. We use this strategy to derive two characterizations of perpetual redexes, i.e., redex ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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. We define a perpetual onestep reduction strategy which enables one to construct minimal (w.r.t. L'evy's ordering \Theta on reductions) infinite reductions in Conditional Orthogonal Expression Reduction Systems. We use this strategy to derive two characterizations of perpetual redexes, i.e., redexes whose contractions retain the existence of infinite reductions. These characterizations generalize existing related criteria for perpetuality of redexes. We give a number of applications of our results, demonstrating their usefulness. In particular, we prove equivalence of weak and strong normalization (the uniform normalization property) for various restricted calculi, which cannot be derived from previously known perpetuality criteria. 1 Introduction The objective of this paper is to study sufficient conditions for uniform normalization, UN, of a term in an orthogonal (first or higherorder) rewrite system, and for the UN property of the rewrite system itself. Here a term is UN if ei...
Relative Normalization in Stable Deterministic Residual Structures
 Z. Khasidashvili and J. Glauert
, 1996
"... This paper generalizes the Huet and L'evy theory of normalization by neededness to an abstract setting. We define Stable Deterministic Residual Structures (SDRS) and Deterministic Family Structures (DFS) by axiomatizing some properties of the residual relation and the family relation on redexes in a ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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This paper generalizes the Huet and L'evy theory of normalization by neededness to an abstract setting. We define Stable Deterministic Residual Structures (SDRS) and Deterministic Family Structures (DFS) by axiomatizing some properties of the residual relation and the family relation on redexes in an Abstract Reduction System. We present two proofs of the Relative Normalization Theorem, one for SDRSs for regular stable sets, and another for DFSs for all stable sets of desirable `normal forms'. We further prove the Relative Optimality Theorem for DFSs. We extend this result to deterministic Computation Structures which are deterministic Prime Event Structures with an extra relation expressing (in)essentiality of events. A version of this paper appears in Proc. of CAAP'96 [GlKh96]. c fl J. Glauert & Z. Khasidashvili, UEA Norwich, 1996 1 Supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of Great Britain under grant GR/H 41300 1 Introduction A normalizable term, i...
Minimal and Optimal Relative Normalization in Orthogonal Expression Reduction Systems
 J. Logic & Comput
, 1996
"... We study normalization relative to desirable sets S of `normal forms' by generalizing Huet&L'evy theory of `normalization by neededness'. We impose natural conditions on S, called stability, that are sufficient and necessary for each term not in Snormal form (i.e., not in S) to have at least one S ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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We study normalization relative to desirable sets S of `normal forms' by generalizing Huet&L'evy theory of `normalization by neededness'. We impose natural conditions on S, called stability, that are sufficient and necessary for each term not in Snormal form (i.e., not in S) to have at least one Sneeded redex, and repeated contraction of Sneeded redexes in a term t to lead to an Snormal form of t whenever there is one. Further, we prove existence of minimal normalizing reductions for regular stable sets of normal forms. For example, the sets of normal forms, headnormalforms, and weak headnormalforms, in the calculus, are all stable and regular. Finally, we generalize L'evy's Optimality theorem to the case of all stable sets of normal forms, and establish a relationship between relative minimal and optimal reductions, revealing a conflict between minimality and optimality of a reduction  for regular stable sets of normal forms, a term need not posses a reduction that is minim...