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58
Laws of programming
 Communications of the ACM
, 1987
"... A complete set of algebraic laws is given for Dijkstra’s nondeterministic sequential programming language. Iteration and recursion are explained in terms of Scott’s domain theory as fixed points of continuous functionals. A calculus analogous to weakest preconditions is suggested as an aid to derivi ..."
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Cited by 90 (4 self)
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A complete set of algebraic laws is given for Dijkstra’s nondeterministic sequential programming language. Iteration and recursion are explained in terms of Scott’s domain theory as fixed points of continuous functionals. A calculus analogous to weakest preconditions is suggested as an aid to deriving programs from their specifications.
Peirce Algebras
, 1992
"... We present a twosorted algebra, called a Peirce algebra, of relations and sets interacting with each other. In a Peirce algebra, sets can combine with each other as in a Boolean algebra, relations can combine with each other as in a relation algebra, and in addition we have both a relationforming o ..."
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Cited by 25 (10 self)
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We present a twosorted algebra, called a Peirce algebra, of relations and sets interacting with each other. In a Peirce algebra, sets can combine with each other as in a Boolean algebra, relations can combine with each other as in a relation algebra, and in addition we have both a relationforming operator on sets (the Peirce product of Boolean modules) and a setforming operator on relations (a cylindrification operation). Two applications of Peirce algebras are given. The first points out that Peirce algebras provide a natural algebraic framework for modelling certain programming constructs. The second shows that the socalled terminological logics arising in knowledge representation have evolved a semantics best described as a calculus of relations interacting with sets.
Generic Composition
, 2002
"... This paper presents a technique called generic composition to provide a uniform basis for modal operators, sequential composition, di#erent kinds of parallel compositions and various healthiness conditions appearing in a variety of semantic theories. The weak inverse of generic composition is define ..."
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Cited by 21 (13 self)
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This paper presents a technique called generic composition to provide a uniform basis for modal operators, sequential composition, di#erent kinds of parallel compositions and various healthiness conditions appearing in a variety of semantic theories. The weak inverse of generic composition is defined. A completeness theorem shows that any predicate can be written in terms of generic composition and its weak inverse. A number of algebraic laws that support reasoning are derived.
Epistemic actions as resources
 Journal of Logic and Computation
, 2007
"... We provide algebraic semantics together with a sound and complete sequent calculus for information update due to epistemic actions. This semantics is flexible enough to accommodate incomplete as well as wrong information e.g. deceit. We give a purely algebraic treatment of the muddy children puzzle, ..."
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Cited by 18 (13 self)
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We provide algebraic semantics together with a sound and complete sequent calculus for information update due to epistemic actions. This semantics is flexible enough to accommodate incomplete as well as wrong information e.g. deceit. We give a purely algebraic treatment of the muddy children puzzle, which moreover extends to situations where the children are allowed to lie and cheat. Epistemic actions, that is, information exchanges between agents A, B,... ∈ A, are modeled as elements of a quantale, hence conceiving them as resources. Indeed, quantales are to locales what monoidal closed categories are to Cartesian closed categories, respectively providing semantics for Intuitionistic Logic, and for noncommutative Intuitionistic Linear Logic, including Lambek calculus. The quantale (Q, � , •) acts on an underlying Qright module (M, � ) of epistemic propositions and facts. The epistemic content is encoded by appearance maps, one pair f M A: M → M and f Q A: Q → Q of (lax) morphisms for each agent A ∈ A. By adjunction, they give rise to epistemic modalities [12], capturing the agents ’ knowledge on propositions and actions. The module action is epistemic update and gives rise to dynamic modalities [20] — cf. weakest preconditions. This model subsumes the crucial fragment of Baltag, Moss and Solecki’s [6] dynamic epistemic logic, abstracting it in a constructive fashion while introducing resourcesensitive structure on the epistemic actions. Keywords: Multiagent communication, knowledge update, resourcesensitivity, quantale, Galois adjoints, dynamic epistemic logic, sequent calculus, Lambek calculus, Linear Logic.
Galois Connections Presented Calculationally.
, 1992
"... properties of Galois connections 29 4.1 Preorders : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 4.1.1 Calculating in preorders : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 4.1.2 Alternative definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 33 4.1.3 Un ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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properties of Galois connections 29 4.1 Preorders : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 4.1.1 Calculating in preorders : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 4.1.2 Alternative definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 33 4.1.3 Uniqueness of adjoints in a preorder : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 34 4.2 Partial orders : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 35 4.2.1 More cancellation laws : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 35 4.2.2 Existence of adjoints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 36 4.2.3 The closure connection : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 40 4.2.4 "Perfect" connections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 41 4.3 Complete lattices : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 44 i 5 Application: The Domain Operator 47 5.1 Monotypes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :...
Between Functions and Relations in Calculating Programs
, 1992
"... This thesis is about the calculational approach to programming, in which one derives programs from specifications. One such calculational paradigm is Ruby, the relational calculus developed by Jones and Sheeran for describing and designing circuits. We identify two shortcomings with derivations made ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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This thesis is about the calculational approach to programming, in which one derives programs from specifications. One such calculational paradigm is Ruby, the relational calculus developed by Jones and Sheeran for describing and designing circuits. We identify two shortcomings with derivations made using Ruby. The first is that the notion of a program being an implementation of a specification has never been made precise. The second is to do with types. Fundamental to the use of type information in deriving programs is the idea of having types as special kinds of programs. In Ruby, types are partial equivalence relations (pers). Unfortunately, manipulating some formulae involving types has proved difficult within Ruby. In particular, the preconditions of the `induction' laws that are much used within program derivation often work out to be assertions about types; such assertions have typically been verified either by informal arguments or by using predicate calculus, rather than by ap...
A Calculus for Predicative Programming
, 1993
"... . A calculus for developing programs from specifications written as predicates that describe the relationship between the initial and final state is proposed. Such specifications are well known from the specification language Z. All elements of a simple sequential programming notation are defined in ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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. A calculus for developing programs from specifications written as predicates that describe the relationship between the initial and final state is proposed. Such specifications are well known from the specification language Z. All elements of a simple sequential programming notation are defined in terms of predicates. Hence programs form a subset of specifications. In particular, sequential composition is defined by 'demonic composition', nondeterministic choice by 'demonic disjunction', and iteration by fixed points. Laws are derived which allow proving equivalence and refinement of specifications and programs. The weakest precondition is expressed by sequential composition. The approach is compared to the predicative programming approach of E. Hehner and to other refinement calculi. 1 Introduction We view a specification as a predicate which describes the admissible final state of a computing machine with respect to some initial state. A program is a predicate restricted to operat...
Universal regular path queries
 HigherOrder and Symbolic Computation
, 2003
"... Given are a directed edgelabelled graph G with a distinguished node n0, and a regular expression P which may contain variables. We wish to compute all substitutions φ (of symbols for variables), together with all nodes n such that all paths n0 → n are in φ(P). We derive an algorithm for this proble ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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Given are a directed edgelabelled graph G with a distinguished node n0, and a regular expression P which may contain variables. We wish to compute all substitutions φ (of symbols for variables), together with all nodes n such that all paths n0 → n are in φ(P). We derive an algorithm for this problem using relational algebra, and show how it may be implemented in Prolog. The motivation for the problem derives from a declarative framework for specifying compiler optimisations. 1 Bob Paige and IFIP WG 2.1 Bob Paige was a longstanding member of IFIP Working Group 2.1 on Algorithmic Languages and Calculi. In recent years, the main aim of this group has been to investigate the derivation of algorithms from specifications by program transformation. Already in the mideighties, Bob was way ahead of the pack: instead of applying transformational techniques to wellworn examples, he was applying his theories of program transformation to new problems, and discovering new algorithms [16, 48, 52]. The secret of his success lay partly in his insistence on the study of general algorithm design strategies (in particular
Container Types Categorically
, 2000
"... A program derivation is said to be polytypic if some of its parameters are data types. Often these data types are container types, whose elements store data. Polytypic program derivations necessitate a general, noninductive definition of `container (data) type'. Here we propose such a definiti ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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A program derivation is said to be polytypic if some of its parameters are data types. Often these data types are container types, whose elements store data. Polytypic program derivations necessitate a general, noninductive definition of `container (data) type'. Here we propose such a definition: a container type is a relator that has membership. It is shown how this definition implies various other properties that are shared by all container types. In particular, all container types have a unique strength, and all natural transformations between container types are strong. Capsule Review Progress in a scientific dicipline is readily equated with an increase in the volume of knowledge, but the true milestones are formed by the introduction of solid, precise and usable definitions. Here you will find the first generic (`polytypic') definition of the notion of `container type', a definition that is remarkably simple and suitable for formal generic proofs (as is amply illustrated in t...
Algebra and Sequent Calculus for Epistemic Actions
 ENTCS PROCEEDINGS OF LOGIC AND COMMUNICATION IN MULTIAGENT SYSTEMS (LCMAS) WORKSHOP, ESSLLI 2004
, 2005
"... We introduce an algebraic approach to Dynamic Epistemic Logic. This approach has the advantage that: (i) its semantics is a transparent algebraic object with a minimal set of primitives from which most ingredients of Dynamic Epistemic Logic arise, (ii) it goes with the introduction of nondeterminis ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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We introduce an algebraic approach to Dynamic Epistemic Logic. This approach has the advantage that: (i) its semantics is a transparent algebraic object with a minimal set of primitives from which most ingredients of Dynamic Epistemic Logic arise, (ii) it goes with the introduction of nondeterminism, (iii) it naturally extends beyond boolean sets of propositions, up to intuitionistic and nondistributive situations, hence allowing to accommodate constructive computational, informationtheoretic as well as nonclassical physical settings, and (iv) introduces a structure on the actions, which now constitute a quantale. We also introduce a corresponding sequent calculus (which extends Lambek calculus), in which propositions, actions as well as agents appear as resources in a resourcesensitive dynamicepistemic logic.