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18
Artificial Evolution for Computer Graphics
 Computer Graphics
, 1991
"... This paper describes how evolutionary techniques of variation and selection can be used to create complex simulated structures, textures, and motions for use in computer graphics and animation. Interactive selection, based on visual perception of procedurally generated results, allows the user to di ..."
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Cited by 238 (2 self)
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This paper describes how evolutionary techniques of variation and selection can be used to create complex simulated structures, textures, and motions for use in computer graphics and animation. Interactive selection, based on visual perception of procedurally generated results, allows the user to direct simulated evolutions in preferred directions. Several examples using these methods have been implemented and are described. 3D plant structures are grown using fixed sets of genetic parameters. Images, solid textures, and animations are created using mutating symbolic lisp expressions. Genotjps consisting of symbolic expressions are presented as an attempt to surpass the limitations of fixedlength genotypes with predefine expression rules. his proposed that artificial evolution has potential as a powerful tool for achieving flexible complexity with a minimum of user input and knowledge of details. 2
Particle Animation and Rendering Using Data Parallel Computation
 Computer Graphics
, 1990
"... Techniques are presented that are used to animate and render particle systems with the Connection Machine CM2, a data parallel supercomputer. A particle behavior language provides an animator with levels of control from kinematic spllne motions to physically based simulations. A parallel particle ..."
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Cited by 101 (0 self)
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Techniques are presented that are used to animate and render particle systems with the Connection Machine CM2, a data parallel supercomputer. A particle behavior language provides an animator with levels of control from kinematic spllne motions to physically based simulations. A parallel particle rendering system allows particles of different shapes, sizes, colors and transparencies to be rendered with antiallasing, hidden surfaces, and motionblur. One virtual processor is assigned to each primitive data element: one to each particle, and during the rendering process, one to each pixeLsized particle fragment, and to each pixel. These tools are used to model dynamic phenomena such as wind, snow, water, and fire. 2
Modeling the Mighty Maple
"... A method is presented for representing botanical trees, given threedimensional points and connections. Limbs are modeled as generalized cylinders whose axes are space curves that interpolate the points. A freeform surface connects branching limbs. "Blobby" techniques are used to model the tree tru ..."
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Cited by 89 (1 self)
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A method is presented for representing botanical trees, given threedimensional points and connections. Limbs are modeled as generalized cylinders whose axes are space curves that interpolate the points. A freeform surface connects branching limbs. "Blobby" techniques are used to model the tree trunk as a series of noncircular cross sections. Bark is simulated with a bump map digitized from real world bark; leaves are textures mapped onto simple surfaces.
Voxel space automata: modeling with stochastic growth processes in voxel space
 Computer Graphics
, 1989
"... A novel stochastic modeling technique is described which operates on a voxel data base in which objects are represented as collections of voxel records. Models are "grown " from predefined geometric elements according to rules based on simple relationships like intersection, proximity, and ..."
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Cited by 56 (0 self)
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A novel stochastic modeling technique is described which operates on a voxel data base in which objects are represented as collections of voxel records. Models are "grown " from predefined geometric elements according to rules based on simple relationships like intersection, proximity, and occlusion which can be evaluated more quickly and easily in voxel space than with analytic geometry. Growth is probabilistic: multiple trials are attempted in which an element's position and orientation are randomly perturbed, and the trial which best fits a set of rules is selected. The term voxel space automata is introduced to describe growth processes that sense and react to a voxel environment. Applications include simulation of plant growth, for which voxel representation facilitates sensing the environment. Illumination can be effidently estimated at each plant "node " at each growth iteration by casting rays into the voxel environment, allowing accurate simulation of reaction to light including heliotropism.
Generalized Stochastic Subdivision
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1987
"... This paper describes the basis for techniques such as stochastic subdivision in the theory of random processes and estimation theory. The popular stochastic subdivision construction is then generalized to provide control of the autocorrelation and spectral properties of the synthesized random functi ..."
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Cited by 37 (2 self)
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This paper describes the basis for techniques such as stochastic subdivision in the theory of random processes and estimation theory. The popular stochastic subdivision construction is then generalized to provide control of the autocorrelation and spectral properties of the synthesized random functions. The generalized construction is suitable for generating a variety of perceptually distinct highquality random functions, including those with nonfractal spectra and directional or oscillatory characteristics. It is argued that a spectral modeling approach provides a more powerful and somewhat more intuitive perceptual characterization of random processes than does the fractal model. Synthetic textures and terrains are presented as a means of visually evaluating the generalized subdivision technique. Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation; I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three Dimensional Graphics and Realism <F11.
On Genetic Algorithms and Lindenmayer Systems
 PARALLEL PROBLEM SOLVING FROM NATURE V
, 1998
"... This paper describes a system for simulating the evolution of artificial 2D plant morphologies. Virtual plant genotypes are inspired by the mathematical formalism known as Lindenmayer systems (Lsystems). The phenotypes are the branching structures resulting from the derivation and graphic interpre ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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This paper describes a system for simulating the evolution of artificial 2D plant morphologies. Virtual plant genotypes are inspired by the mathematical formalism known as Lindenmayer systems (Lsystems). The phenotypes are the branching structures resulting from the derivation and graphic interpretation of the genotypes. Evolution is simulated using a genetic algorithm with a fitness function inspired by current evolutionary hypotheses concerning the factors that have had the greatest effect on plant evolution. The system also provides interactive selection, allowing the user to direct simulated evolution towards preferred phenotypes. Simulation results demonstrate many interesting structures, suggesting that artificial evolution constitutes a powerful tool for (1) exploring the large, complex space of branching structures found in nature, and (2) generating novel ones. Finally, we emphasize that Lindenmayer systems constitute a highly suitable encoding for artificial evolution stud...
Translating HTNs to PDDL: A Small Amount of Domain Knowledge Can Go a Long Way
"... We show how to translate HTN domain descriptions (if they satisfy certain restrictions) into PDDL so that they can be used by classical planners. We provide correctness results for our translation algorithm, and show that it runs in linear time and space. We also show that even small and incomplete ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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We show how to translate HTN domain descriptions (if they satisfy certain restrictions) into PDDL so that they can be used by classical planners. We provide correctness results for our translation algorithm, and show that it runs in linear time and space. We also show that even small and incomplete amounts of HTN knowledge, when translated into PDDL using our algorithm, can greatly improve a classical planner’s performance. In experiments on several thousand randomly generated problems in three different planning domains, such knowledge speeded up the wellknown FastForward planner by several orders of magnitude, and enabled it to solve much larger problems than it could otherwise solve.
Multiresolution Rendering of Complex Botanical Scenes
 In Proceedings of Graphics Interface 97
, 1997
"... This paper presents a system for rendering very large collections of randomly parameterized plants while generating manageable scene geometries for rendering. A given botanical description of a plant is compiled into a hierarchical volume approximation. This is then integrated into a multiresolution ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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This paper presents a system for rendering very large collections of randomly parameterized plants while generating manageable scene geometries for rendering. A given botanical description of a plant is compiled into a hierarchical volume approximation. This is then integrated into a multiresolution rendering system that uses adaptive volume refinement. For objects that are close to the viewer, explicit polygons are generated, while objects hidden or further away are rendered as groups of microsurfaces. This system can be extended to any polygon intensive rendering. 1 Introduction In this paper, we present a method that efficiently models and renders scenes containing a large number of plants, each of which can differ macroscopically in form as well as in detail from all the others. Our target is scene models containing on the order of 100 million primitives if modeled using polygons or particles, and we prevent the actual synthesis and manipulation of such large databases. This metho...
FAST ALGORITHMS OF PLANT COMPUTATION BASED ON SUBSTRUCTURE INSTANCES 1
"... Fast rendering and botanically faithful description of plants are a real challenge in computer graphics. Usually, plant production is computed using the method internode by internode, while there exist a lot of buds in an individual tree, therefore, this approach is quite timeconsuming even for a m ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Fast rendering and botanically faithful description of plants are a real challenge in computer graphics. Usually, plant production is computed using the method internode by internode, while there exist a lot of buds in an individual tree, therefore, this approach is quite timeconsuming even for a mediumsize tree. In this paper, we present a new algorithm based on substructure instances to quickly compute plants ’ production, and then, for certain plant architectural models, combine with the geometrical rules to create a substructure library. Finally, we construct 3D virtual plants using 3D organs. Compared with the classical method in computing and constructing plant structures, the algorithm described in this paper is much faster while keeping botanical nature of plant. The algorithm can be generalized to most plant species.