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169
Performance of optical flow techniques
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER VISION
, 1994
"... While different optical flow techniques continue to appear, there has been a lack of quantitative evaluation of existing methods. For a common set of real and synthetic image sequences, we report the results of a number of regularly cited optical flow techniques, including instances of differential, ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1045 (32 self)
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While different optical flow techniques continue to appear, there has been a lack of quantitative evaluation of existing methods. For a common set of real and synthetic image sequences, we report the results of a number of regularly cited optical flow techniques, including instances of differential, matching, energybased and phasebased methods. Our comparisons are primarily empirical, and concentrate on the accuracy, reliability and density of the velocity measurements; they show that performance can differ significantly among the techniques we implemented.
High Accuracy Optical Flow Estimation Based on a Theory for Warping
, 2004
"... We study an energy functional for computing optical flow that combines three assumptions: a brightness constancy assumption, a gradient constancy assumption, and a discontinuitypreserving spatiotemporal smoothness constraint. ..."
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Cited by 299 (37 self)
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We study an energy functional for computing optical flow that combines three assumptions: a brightness constancy assumption, a gradient constancy assumption, and a discontinuitypreserving spatiotemporal smoothness constraint.
A database and evaluation methodology for optical flow
 In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision
, 2007
"... The quantitative evaluation of optical flow algorithms by Barron et al. (1994) led to significant advances in performance. The challenges for optical flow algorithms today go beyond the datasets and evaluation methods proposed in that paper. Instead, they center on problems associated with complex n ..."
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Cited by 219 (16 self)
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The quantitative evaluation of optical flow algorithms by Barron et al. (1994) led to significant advances in performance. The challenges for optical flow algorithms today go beyond the datasets and evaluation methods proposed in that paper. Instead, they center on problems associated with complex natural scenes, including nonrigid motion, real sensor noise, and motion discontinuities. We propose a new set of benchmarks and evaluation methods for the next generation of optical flow algorithms. To that end, we contribute four types of data to test different aspects of optical flow algorithms: (1) sequences with nonrigid motion where the groundtruth flow is determined by tracking hidden fluorescent texture, (2) realistic synthetic sequences, (3) high framerate video used to study interpolation error, and (4) modified stereo sequences of static scenes. In addition to the average angular error used by Barron et al., we compute the absolute flow endpoint error, measures for frame interpolation error, improved statistics, and results at motion discontinuities and in textureless regions. In October 2007, we published the performance of several wellknown methods on a preliminary version of our data to establish the current state of the art. We also made the data freely available on the web at
The Computation of Optical Flow
, 1995
"... Twodimensional image motion is the projection of the threedimensional motion of objects, relative to a visual sensor, onto its image plane. Sequences of timeordered images allow the estimation of projected twodimensional image motion as either instantaneous image velocities or discrete image dis ..."
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Cited by 216 (10 self)
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Twodimensional image motion is the projection of the threedimensional motion of objects, relative to a visual sensor, onto its image plane. Sequences of timeordered images allow the estimation of projected twodimensional image motion as either instantaneous image velocities or discrete image displacements. These are usually called the optical flow field or the image velocity field. Provided that optical flow is a reliable approximation to twodimensional image motion, it may then be used to recover the threedimensional motion of the visual sensor (to within a scale factor) and the threedimensional surface structure (shape or relative depth) through assumptions concerning the structure of the optical flow field, the threedimensional environment and the motion of the sensor. Optical flow may also be used to perform motion detection, object segmentation, timetocollision and focus of expansion calculations, motion compensated encoding and stereo disparity measurement. We investiga...
Kalman Filterbased Algorithms for Estimating Depth from Image Sequences
, 1989
"... Using known camera motion to estimate depth from image sequences is an important problem in robot vision. Many applications of depthfrommotion, including navigation and manipulation, require algorithms that can estimate depth in an online, incremental fashion. This requires a representation that ..."
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Cited by 214 (26 self)
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Using known camera motion to estimate depth from image sequences is an important problem in robot vision. Many applications of depthfrommotion, including navigation and manipulation, require algorithms that can estimate depth in an online, incremental fashion. This requires a representation that records the uncertainty in depth estimates and a mechanism that integrates new measurements with existing depth estimates to reduce the uncertainty over time. Kalman filtering provides this mechanism. Previous applications of Kalman filtering to depthfrommotion have been limited to estimating depth at the location of a sparse set of features. In this paper, we introduce a new, pixelbased (iconic) algorithm that estimates depth and depth uncertainty at each pixel and incrementally refines these estimates over time. We describe the algorithm and contrast its formulation and performance to that of a featurebased Kalman filtering algorithm. We compare the performance of the two approaches by analyzing their theoretical convergence rates, by conducting quantitative experiments with images of a flat poster, and by conducting qualitative experiments with images of a realistic outdoorscene model. The results show that the new method is an effective way to extract depth from lateral camera translations. This approach can be extended to incorporate general motion and to integrate other sources of information, such as stereo. The algorithms we have developed, which combine Kalman filtering with iconic descriptions of depth, therefore can serve as a useful and general framework for lowlevel dynamic vision.
Motion Segmentation and Tracking Using Normalized Cuts
, 1998
"... We propose a motion segmentation algorithm that aims to break a scene into its most prominent moving groups. A weighted graph is constructed on the ira. age sequence by connecting pixels that arc in the spatiotemporal neighborhood of each other. At each pizel, we define motion profile vectors which ..."
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Cited by 145 (5 self)
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We propose a motion segmentation algorithm that aims to break a scene into its most prominent moving groups. A weighted graph is constructed on the ira. age sequence by connecting pixels that arc in the spatiotemporal neighborhood of each other. At each pizel, we define motion profile vectors which capture the probability distribution of the image veloczty. The distance between motion profiles is used to assign a weight on the graph edges. 5rsmg normalized cuts we find the most salient partitions of the spatiotemporaI graph formed by the image sequence. For swmenting long image sequences,' we have developed a recursire update procedure that incorporates knowledge of segmentation in previous frames for efficiently finding the group correspondence in the new frame.
Optimal motion and structure estimation
 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell
, 1993
"... This paper studies optimal estimation for motion and structure from point correspondences. (1) A study of the characteristics of thc problem provides insight into the need for optimal estimation. (2) Methods have been developed for optimal estimation with known or unknown noise distribution. The sim ..."
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Cited by 131 (5 self)
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This paper studies optimal estimation for motion and structure from point correspondences. (1) A study of the characteristics of thc problem provides insight into the need for optimal estimation. (2) Methods have been developed for optimal estimation with known or unknown noise distribution. The simulations showed that the optimal estimations achieve remarkable improvement over the preliminary estimates given by the linear algorithm. (3) An approach to estimating errors in the optimized solution is presented. (4) The performance of the algorithm is compared with a theoretical lower bound CramCrRao bound. Simulations show that the actual errors have essentially reached the bound. (5) A batch leastsquares technique (LevenbergMarquardt) and a sequential leastsquares technique (iterated extended Kalman filtering) are analyzed and compared. The analysis and experiments show that, in general, a batch technique will perform better than a sequential technique for any nonlinear problems. Recursive batch processing technique is proposed for nonlinear problems that require recursive estimation. 1.
Bayesian Estimation Of Motion Vector Fields
 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell
, 1992
"... This paper presents a new approach to the estimation of twodimensional motion vector fields from timevarying images. The approach is stochastic, both in its formulation and in the solution method. The formulation involves the specification of a deterministic structural model, along with stochastic ..."
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Cited by 121 (19 self)
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This paper presents a new approach to the estimation of twodimensional motion vector fields from timevarying images. The approach is stochastic, both in its formulation and in the solution method. The formulation involves the specification of a deterministic structural model, along with stochastic observation and motion field models. Two motion models are proposed: a globally smooth model based on vector Markov random fields and a piecewise smooth model derived from coupled vectorbinary Markov random fields. Two estimation criteria are studied. In the Maximum A Posteriori Probability (MAP) estimation the a posteriori probability of motion given data is maximized, while in the Minimum Expected Cost (MEC) estimation the expectation of a certain cost function is minimized. The MAP estimation is performed via simulated annealing, while the MEC algorithm performs iterationwise averaging. Both algorithms generate sample fields by means of stochastic relaxation implemented via the Gibbs s...
A duality based approach for realtime tvl1 optical flow
 In Ann. Symp. German Association Patt. Recogn
, 2007
"... Abstract. Variational methods are among the most successful approaches to calculate the optical flow between two image frames. A particularly appealing formulation is based on total variation (TV) regularization and the robust L 1 norm in the data fidelity term. This formulation can preserve discont ..."
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Cited by 114 (16 self)
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Abstract. Variational methods are among the most successful approaches to calculate the optical flow between two image frames. A particularly appealing formulation is based on total variation (TV) regularization and the robust L 1 norm in the data fidelity term. This formulation can preserve discontinuities in the flow field and offers an increased robustness against illumination changes, occlusions and noise. In this work we present a novel approach to solve the TVL 1 formulation. Our method results in a very efficient numerical scheme, which is based on a dual formulation of the TV energy and employs an efficient pointwise thresholding step. Additionally, our approach can be accelerated by modern graphics processing units. We demonstrate the realtime performance (30 fps) of our approach for video inputs at a resolution of 320 × 240 pixels. 1
Efficient multiscale regularization with applications to the computation of optical flow
 IEEE Trans. Image Process
, 1994
"... AbsfruetA new approach to regularization methods for image processing is introduced and developed using as a vehicle the problem of computing dense optical flow fields in an image sequence. Standard formulations of this problem require the computationally intensive solution of an elliptic partial d ..."
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Cited by 98 (33 self)
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AbsfruetA new approach to regularization methods for image processing is introduced and developed using as a vehicle the problem of computing dense optical flow fields in an image sequence. Standard formulations of this problem require the computationally intensive solution of an elliptic partial differential equation that arises from the often used “smoothness constraint” ’yl”. regularization. The interpretation of the smoothness constraint is utilized as a “fractal prior ” to motivate regularization based on a recently introduced class of multiscale stochastic models. The solution of the new problem formulation is computed with an efficient multiscale algorithm. Experiments on several image sequences demonstrate the substantial computational savings that can be achieved due to the fact that the algorithm is noniterative and in fact has a per pixel computational complexity that is independent of image size. The new approach also has a number of other important advantages. Specifically, multiresolution flow field estimates are available, allowing great flexibility in dealing with the tradeoff between resolution and accuracy. Multiscale error covariance information is also available, which is of considerable use in assessing the accuracy of the estimates. In particular, these error statistics can be used as the basis for a rational procedure for determining the spatiallyvarying optimal reconstruction resolution. Furthermore, if there are compelling reasons to insist upon a standard smoothness constraint, our algorithm provides an excellent initialization for the iterative algorithms associated with the smoothness constraint problem formulation. Finally, the usefulness of our approach should extend to a wide variety of illposed inverse problems in which variational techniques seeking a “smooth ” solution are generally Used. I.