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46
Incremental concept learning for bounded data mining
 Information and Computation
, 1999
"... Important re nements of concept learning in the limit from positive data considerably restricting the accessibility of input data are studied. Let c be any concept; every in nite sequence of elements exhausting c is called positive presentation of c. In all learning models considered the learning ma ..."
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Cited by 42 (32 self)
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Important re nements of concept learning in the limit from positive data considerably restricting the accessibility of input data are studied. Let c be any concept; every in nite sequence of elements exhausting c is called positive presentation of c. In all learning models considered the learning machine computes a sequence of hypotheses about the target concept from a positive presentation of it. With iterative learning, the learning machine, in making a conjecture, has access to its previous conjecture and the latest data item coming in. In kbounded examplememory inference (k is a priori xed) the learner is allowed to access, in making a conjecture, its previous hypothesis, its memory of up to k data items it has already seen, and the next element coming in. In the case of kfeedback identi cation, the learning machine, in making a conjecture, has access to its previous conjecture, the latest data item coming in, and, on the basis of this information, it can compute k items and query the database of previous data to nd out, for each of the k items, whether or not it is in the database (k is again a priori xed). In all cases, the sequence of conjectures has to converge to a hypothesis
Infinitary Self Reference in Learning Theory
, 1994
"... Kleene's Second Recursion Theorem provides a means for transforming any program p into a program e(p) which first creates a quiescent self copy and then runs p on that self copy together with any externally given input. e(p), in effect, has complete (low level) self knowledge, and p represents ..."
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Cited by 19 (6 self)
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Kleene's Second Recursion Theorem provides a means for transforming any program p into a program e(p) which first creates a quiescent self copy and then runs p on that self copy together with any externally given input. e(p), in effect, has complete (low level) self knowledge, and p represents how e(p) uses its self knowledge (and its knowledge of the external world). Infinite regress is not required since e(p) creates its self copy outside of itself. One mechanism to achieve this creation is a self replication trick isomorphic to that employed by singlecelled organisms. Another is for e(p) to look in a mirror to see which program it is. In 1974 the author published an infinitary generalization of Kleene's theorem which he called the Operator Recursion Theorem. It provides a means for obtaining an (algorithmically) growing collection of programs which, in effect, share a common (also growing) mirror from which they can obtain complete low level models of themselves and the other prog...
The intrinsic complexity of language identification
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1996
"... A new investigation of the complexity of language identification is undertaken using the notion of reduction from recursion theory and complexity theory. The approach, referred to as the intrinsic complexity of language identification, employs notions of ‘weak ’ and ‘strong ’ reduction between learn ..."
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Cited by 19 (8 self)
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A new investigation of the complexity of language identification is undertaken using the notion of reduction from recursion theory and complexity theory. The approach, referred to as the intrinsic complexity of language identification, employs notions of ‘weak ’ and ‘strong ’ reduction between learnable classes of languages. The intrinsic complexity of several classes is considered and the results agree with the intuitive difficulty of learning these classes. Several complete classes are shown for both the reductions and it is also established that the weak and strong reductions are distinct. An interesting result is that the self referential class of Wiehagen in which the minimal element of every language is a grammar for the language and the class of pattern languages introduced by Angluin are equivalent in the strong sense. This study has been influenced by a similar treatment of function identification by Freivalds, Kinber, and Smith. 1
Language Learning With Some Negative Information
, 1993
"... Gold–style language learning is a formal theory of learning from examples by algorithmic devices called learning machines. Originally motivated by child language learning, it features the algorithmic synthesis (in the limit) of grammars for formal languages from information about those languages. In ..."
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Cited by 17 (9 self)
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Gold–style language learning is a formal theory of learning from examples by algorithmic devices called learning machines. Originally motivated by child language learning, it features the algorithmic synthesis (in the limit) of grammars for formal languages from information about those languages. In traditional Gold–style language learning, learning machines are not provided with negative information, i.e., information about the complements of the input languages. We investigate two approaches to providing small amounts of negative information and demonstrate in each case a strong resulting increase in learning power. Finally, we show that small packets of negative information also lead to increased speed of learning. This result agrees with a psycholinguistic hypothesis of McNeill correlating the availability of parental expansions with the speed of child language development.
Synthesizing Enumeration Techniques For Language Learning
 In Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference on Computational Learning Theory
, 1996
"... this paper we assume, without loss of generality, that for all oe ` ø , [M(oe) 6=?] ) [M(ø) 6=?]. ..."
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Cited by 16 (7 self)
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this paper we assume, without loss of generality, that for all oe ` ø , [M(oe) 6=?] ) [M(ø) 6=?].
The synthesis of language learners
 Information and Computation
, 1999
"... An index for an r.e. class of languages (by definition) is a procedure which generates a sequence of grammars defining the class. An index for an indexed family of languages (by definition) is a procedure which generates a sequence of decision procedures defining the family. Studied is the metaprobl ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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An index for an r.e. class of languages (by definition) is a procedure which generates a sequence of grammars defining the class. An index for an indexed family of languages (by definition) is a procedure which generates a sequence of decision procedures defining the family. Studied is the metaproblem of synthesizing from indices for r.e. classes and for indexed families of languages various kinds of languagelearners for the corresponding classes or families indexed. Many positive results, as well as some negative results, are presented regarding the existence of such synthesizers. The negative results essentially provide lower bounds for the positive results. The proofs of some of the positive results yield, as pleasant corollaries, subsetprinciple or telltale style characterizations for the learnability of the corresponding classes or families indexed. For example, the indexed families of recursive languages that can be behaviorally correctly identified from positive data are surprisingly characterized by Angluin’s (1980b) Condition 2 (the subset principle for circumventing overgeneralization). 1
Complexity issues for vacillatory function identification
 Information and Computation
, 1995
"... It was previously shown by Barzdin and Podnieks that one does not increase the power of learning programs for functions by allowing learning algorithms to converge to a finite set of correct programs instead of requiring them to converge to a single correct program. In this paper we define some new, ..."
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Cited by 12 (10 self)
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It was previously shown by Barzdin and Podnieks that one does not increase the power of learning programs for functions by allowing learning algorithms to converge to a finite set of correct programs instead of requiring them to converge to a single correct program. In this paper we define some new, subtle, but natural concepts of mind change complexity for function learning and show that, if one bounds this complexity for learning algorithms, then, by contrast with Barzdin and Podnieks result, there are interesting and sometimes complicated tradeoffs between these complexity bounds, bounds on the number of final correct programs, and learning power. CR Classification Number: I.2.6 (Learning – Induction). 1
Learning in the presence of inaccurate information
 in &quot;Proceedings of the 2nd Annual ACM Conference on Computational Learning Theory
, 1989
"... The present paper considers the effects of introducing inaccuracies in a learner’s environment in Gold’s learning model of identification in the limit. Three kinds of inaccuracies are considered: presence of spurious data is modeled as learning from a noisy environment, missing data is modeled as ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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The present paper considers the effects of introducing inaccuracies in a learner’s environment in Gold’s learning model of identification in the limit. Three kinds of inaccuracies are considered: presence of spurious data is modeled as learning from a noisy environment, missing data is modeled as learning from incomplete environment, and the presence of a mixture of both spurious and missing data is modeled as learning from imperfect environment. Two learning domains are considered, namely, identification of programs from graphs of computable functions and identification of grammars from positive data about recursively enumerable languages. Many hierarchies and tradeoffs resulting from the interplay between the number of errors allowed in the final hypotheses, the number of inaccuracies in the data, the types of inaccuracies, and the type of success criteria are derived. An interesting result is that in the context of function learning, incomplete data is strictly worse for learning than noisy data. 1
On Aggregating Teams of Learning Machines
 Theoretical Computer Science A
, 1994
"... The present paper studies the problem of when a team of learning machines can be aggregated into a single learning machine without any loss in learning power. The main results concern aggregation ratios for vacillatory identification of languages from texts. For a positiveinteger n,amachine is said ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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The present paper studies the problem of when a team of learning machines can be aggregated into a single learning machine without any loss in learning power. The main results concern aggregation ratios for vacillatory identification of languages from texts. For a positiveinteger n,amachine is said to TxtFex n identify a language L just in case the machine converges to up to n grammars for L on any text for L.For such identification criteria, the aggregation ratio is derived for the n = 2 case. It is shown that the collection of languages that can be TxtFex 2 identified by teams with success ratio greater than 5=6 are the same as those collections of languages that can be TxtFex 2  identified by a single machine. It is also established that 5=6 is indeed the cutoff point by showing that there are collections of languages that can be TxtFex 2 identified bya team employing 6 machines, at least 5 of which are required to be successful, but cannot be TxtFex 2 identified byany single machine. Additionally, aggregation ratios are also derived for finite identification of languages from positive data and for numerous criteria involving language learning from both positive and negative data.