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12
Learning indexed families of recursive languages from positive data: a survey
, 2008
"... In the past 40 years, research on inductive inference has developed along different lines, e.g., in the formalizations used, and in the classes of target concepts considered. One common root of many of these formalizations is Gold’s model of identification in the limit. This model has been studied f ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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In the past 40 years, research on inductive inference has developed along different lines, e.g., in the formalizations used, and in the classes of target concepts considered. One common root of many of these formalizations is Gold’s model of identification in the limit. This model has been studied for learning recursive functions, recursively enumerable languages, and recursive languages, reflecting different aspects of machine learning, artificial intelligence, complexity theory, and recursion theory. One line of research focuses on indexed families of recursive languages — classes of recursive languages described in a representation scheme for which the question of membership for any string in any of the given languages is effectively decidable with a uniform procedure. Such language classes are of interest because of their naturalness. The survey at hand picks out important studies on learning indexed families (including basic as well as recent research), summarizes and illustrates the corresponding results, and points out links to related fields such as grammatical inference, machine learning, and artificial intelligence in general.
Comparison of query learning and Goldstyle learning in dependence of the hypothesis space
 ALGORITHMIC LEARNING THEORY: FIFTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (ALT’ 2004), VOLUME 3244 OF LECTURE
, 2004
"... Different formal learning models address different aspects of learning. Below we compare learning via queries—interpreting learning as a oneshot process in which the learner is required to identify the target concept with just one hypothesis—to Goldstyle learning—interpreting learning as a limiti ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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Different formal learning models address different aspects of learning. Below we compare learning via queries—interpreting learning as a oneshot process in which the learner is required to identify the target concept with just one hypothesis—to Goldstyle learning—interpreting learning as a limiting process in which the learner may change its mind arbitrarily often before converging to a correct hypothesis. Although these two approaches seem rather unrelated, a previous study has provided characterisations of different models of Goldstyle learning (learning in the limit, conservative inference, and behaviourally correct learning) in terms of query learning. Thus under certain circumstances it is possible to replace limit learners by equally powerful oneshot learners. Both this previous and the current analysis are valid in the general context of learning indexable classes of recursive languages. The main purpose of this paper is to solve a challenging open problem from the previous study. The solution of this problem leads to an important observation, namely that there is a natural query learning type hierarchically inbetween Goldstyle learning in the limit and behaviourally correct learning. Astonishingly, this query learning type can then again be characterised in terms of Goldstyle inference. In connection with this new inbetween inference type we have gained new insights into the basic model of conservative learning and the way conservative learners work. In addition to these results, we compare several further natural inference types in both models to one another.
Mind change efficient learning
 Info. & Comp
, 2005
"... Abstract. This paper studies efficient learning with respect to mind changes. Our starting point is the idea that a learner that is efficient with respect to mind changes minimizes mind changes not only globally in the entire learning problem, but also locally in subproblems after receiving some evi ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Abstract. This paper studies efficient learning with respect to mind changes. Our starting point is the idea that a learner that is efficient with respect to mind changes minimizes mind changes not only globally in the entire learning problem, but also locally in subproblems after receiving some evidence. Formalizing this idea leads to the notion of uniform mind change optimality. We characterize the structure of language classes that can be identified with at most α mind changes by some learner (not necessarily effective): A language class L is identifiable with α mind changes iff the accumulation order of L is at most α. Accumulation order is a classic concept from pointset topology. To aid the construction of learning algorithms, we show that the characteristic property of uniformly mind change optimal learners is that they output conjectures (languages) with maximal accumulation order. We illustrate the theory by describing mind change optimal learners for various problems such as identifying linear subspaces and onevariable patterns. 1
Relations between Goldstyle learning and query learning
, 2005
"... Different formal learning models address different aspects of human learning. Below we compare Goldstyle learning—modelling learning as a limiting process in which the learner may change its mind arbitrarily often before converging to a correct hypothesis—to learning via queries—modelling learning ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Different formal learning models address different aspects of human learning. Below we compare Goldstyle learning—modelling learning as a limiting process in which the learner may change its mind arbitrarily often before converging to a correct hypothesis—to learning via queries—modelling learning as a oneshot process in which the learner is required to identify the target concept with just one hypothesis. In the Goldstyle model considered below, the information presented to the learner consists of positive examples for the target concept, whereas in query learning, the learner may pose a certain kind of queries about the target concept, which will be answered correctly by an oracle (called teacher). Although these two approaches seem rather unrelated at first glance, we provide characterisations of different models of Goldstyle learning (learning in the limit, conservative inference, and behaviourally correct learning) in terms of query learning. Thus we describe the circumstances which are necessary to replace limit learners by equally powerful oneshot learners. Our results are valid in the general context of learning indexable classes of recursive languages. This analysis leads to an important observation, namely that there is a natural query learning type hierarchically inbetween Goldstyle learning in the limit and behaviourally correct learning. Astonishingly, this query learning type can then again be characterised in terms of Goldstyle inference.
An approach to intrinsic complexity of uniform learning
"... Inductive inference is concerned with algorithmic learning of recursive functions. In the model of learning in the limit a learner successful for a class of recursive functions must eventually find a program for any function in the class from a gradually growing sequence of its values. This approach ..."
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Inductive inference is concerned with algorithmic learning of recursive functions. In the model of learning in the limit a learner successful for a class of recursive functions must eventually find a program for any function in the class from a gradually growing sequence of its values. This approach is generalized in uniform learning, where the problem of synthesizing a successful learner for a class of functions from a description of this class is considered. A common reductionbased approach for comparing the complexity of learning problems in inductive inference is intrinsic complexity. Informally, if a learning problem (a class of recursive functions) A is reducible to a learning problem (a class of recursive functions) B, then a solution for B can be transformed into a solution for A. In the context of intrinsic complexity, reducibility between two classes is expressed via recursive operators transforming target functions in one direction and sequences of corresponding hypotheses in the other direction. The present paper is concerned with intrinsic complexity of uniform learning. The relevant notions are adapted and illustrated by several examples. Characterisations of complete classes finally allow for various insightful conclusions. The connection to intrinsic complexity of nonuniform learning is revealed within several analogies concerning first the structure of complete classes and second the general interpretation of the notion of intrinsic complexity. Key words: inductive inference, learning theory, recursion theory
Inductive Inference of Approximations for Recursive Concepts
, 2005
"... This paper provides a systematic study of inductive inference of indexable concept classes in learning scenarios where the learner is successful if its final hypothesis describes a finite variant of the target concept, i.e., learning with anomalies. Learning from positive data only and from both pos ..."
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This paper provides a systematic study of inductive inference of indexable concept classes in learning scenarios where the learner is successful if its final hypothesis describes a finite variant of the target concept, i.e., learning with anomalies. Learning from positive data only and from both positive and negative data is distinguished. The following learning models are studied: learning in the limit, finite identification, setdriven learning, conservative inference, and behaviorally correct learning. The attention is focused on the case that the number of allowed anomalies is finite but not a priori bounded. However, results for the special case of learning with an a priori bounded number of anomalies are presented, too. Characterizations of the learning models with anomalies in terms of finite telltale sets are provided. The observed varieties in the degree of recursiveness of the relevant telltale sets are already sufficient to quantify the differences in the corresponding learning models with anomalies. Finally, a complete picture concerning the relations of all models of learning with and without anomalies mentioned above is derived.
Learning Approximations of Recursive Concepts
, 2001
"... This paper provides a systematic study of inductive inference of indexable concept classes in learning scenarios where the learner is successful if its final hypothesis describes a finite variant of the target concept, i.e., learning with anomalies. Learning from positive data only and from both ..."
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This paper provides a systematic study of inductive inference of indexable concept classes in learning scenarios where the learner is successful if its final hypothesis describes a finite variant of the target concept, i.e., learning with anomalies. Learning from positive data only and from both positive and negative data is distinguished. The following learning models are studied: learning in the limit, finite identification, setdriven learning, conservative inference, and behaviorally correct learning. The attention is focused on the case that the number of allowed anomalies is finite but not a priori bounded. However, results for the special case of learning with an a priori bounded number of anomalies are presented, too. Characterizations of the learning models with anomalies in terms of finite telltale sets are provided. The observed varieties in the degree of recursiveness of the relevant telltale sets are already sufficient to quantify the differences in the corr...
Intrinsic Complexity of Uniform Learning
"... Abstract. Inductive inference is concerned with algorithmic learning of recursive functions. In the model of learning in the limit a learner successful for a class of recursive functions must eventually find a program for any function in the class from a gradually growing sequence of its values. Thi ..."
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Abstract. Inductive inference is concerned with algorithmic learning of recursive functions. In the model of learning in the limit a learner successful for a class of recursive functions must eventually find a program for any function in the class from a gradually growing sequence of its values. This approach is generalized in uniform learning, where the problem of synthesizing a successful learner for a class of functions from a description of this class is considered. A common reductionbased approach for comparing the complexity of learning problems in inductive inference is intrinsic complexity. In this context, reducibility between two classes is expressed via recursive operators transforming target functions in one direction and sequences of corresponding hypotheses in the other direction. The present paper is the first one concerned with intrinsic complexity of uniform learning. The relevant notions are adapted and illustrated by several examples. Characterizations of complete classes finally allow for various insightful conclusions. The connection to intrinsic complexity of nonuniform learning is revealed within several analogies concerning firstly the role and structure of complete classes and secondly the general interpretation of the notion of intrinsic complexity. 1
Mind Change Optimal Learning: . . .
, 2007
"... Learning theories play a significant role to machine learning as computability and complexity theories to software engineering. Gold’s language learning paradigm is one cornerstone of modern learning theories. The aim of this thesis is to establish an inductive principle in Gold’s language learning ..."
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Learning theories play a significant role to machine learning as computability and complexity theories to software engineering. Gold’s language learning paradigm is one cornerstone of modern learning theories. The aim of this thesis is to establish an inductive principle in Gold’s language learning paradigm to guide the design of machine learning algorithms. We follow the common practice of using the number of mind changes to measure complexity of Gold’s language learning problems, and study efficient learning with respect to mind changes. Our starting point is the idea that a learner that is efficient with respect to mind changes minimizes mind changes not only globally in the entire learning problem, but also locally in subproblems after receiving some evidence. Formalizing this idea leads to the notion of mind change optimality. We characterize mind change complexity of language collections with Cantor’s classic concept of accumulation order. We show that the characteristic property of mind change optimal learners is that they output conjectures (languages) with maximal accumulation order. Therefore, we obtain an inductive principle in Gold’s language learning paradigm based on the simple topological concept accumulation order. The new