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19
On the strength of Ramsey’s Theorem for pairs
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 2001
"... Abstract. We study the proof–theoretic strength and effective content denote Ramof the infinite form of Ramsey’s theorem for pairs. Let RT n k sey’s theorem for k–colorings of n–element sets, and let RT n < ∞ denote (∀k)RTn k. Our main result on computability is: For any n ≥ 2 and any computable (r ..."
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Cited by 41 (9 self)
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Abstract. We study the proof–theoretic strength and effective content denote Ramof the infinite form of Ramsey’s theorem for pairs. Let RT n k sey’s theorem for k–colorings of n–element sets, and let RT n < ∞ denote (∀k)RTn k. Our main result on computability is: For any n ≥ 2 and any computable (recursive) k–coloring of the n–element sets of natural numbers, there is an infinite homogeneous set X with X ′ ′ ≤T 0 (n). Let I�n and B�n denote the �n induction and bounding schemes, respectively. Adapting the case n = 2 of the above result (where X is low2) to models is conservative of arithmetic enables us to show that RCA0 + I �2 + RT2 2 over RCA0 + I �2 for �1 1 statements and that RCA0 + I �3 + RT2 < ∞ is �1 1conservative over RCA0 + I �3. It follows that RCA0 + RT2 2 does not imply B �3. In contrast, J. Hirst showed that RCA0 + RT2 < ∞ does imply B �3, and we include a proof of a slightly strengthened version of this result. It follows that RT2 < ∞ is strictly stronger than RT2 2 over RC A0. 1.
The Baire category theorem in weak subsystems of secondorder arithmetic
 THE JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC
, 1993
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Partition Theorems and Computability Theory
 Bull. Symbolic Logic
, 2004
"... The computabilitytheoretic and reverse mathematical aspects of various combinatorial principles, such as König’s Lemma and Ramsey’s Theorem, have received a great deal of attention and are active areas of research. We carry on this study of effective combinatorics by analyzing various partition the ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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The computabilitytheoretic and reverse mathematical aspects of various combinatorial principles, such as König’s Lemma and Ramsey’s Theorem, have received a great deal of attention and are active areas of research. We carry on this study of effective combinatorics by analyzing various partition theorems (such as Ramsey’s Theorem) with the aim of understanding the complexity of solutions to computable instances in terms of the Turing degrees and the arithmetical hierarchy. Our main focus is the study of the effective content of two partition theorems allowing infinitely many colors: the Canonical Ramsey Theorem of Erdös and Rado, and the Regressive Function Theorem of Kanamori and McAloon. Our results on the complexity of solutions rely heavily on a new, purely inductive, proof of the Canonical Ramsey Theorem. This study unearths some interesting relationships between these two partition theorems, Ramsey’s Theorem, and Konig’s Lemma, and these connections will be emphasized. We also study Ramsey degrees, i.e. those Turing degrees which are able to compute homogeneous sets for every computable 2coloring of pairs of natural numbers, in an attempt to further understand the effective content of Ramsey’s Theorem for exponent 2. We establish some new results about these degrees, and obtain as a corollary the nonexistence of a “universal ” computable 2coloring of pairs of natural numbers.
The canonical Ramsey theorem and computability theory
"... Using the tools of computability theory and reverse mathematics, we study the complexity of two partition theorems, the Canonical Ramsey Theorem of Erdös and Rado, and the Regressive Function Theorem of Kanamori and McAloon. Our main aim is to analyze the complexity of the solutions to computable in ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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Using the tools of computability theory and reverse mathematics, we study the complexity of two partition theorems, the Canonical Ramsey Theorem of Erdös and Rado, and the Regressive Function Theorem of Kanamori and McAloon. Our main aim is to analyze the complexity of the solutions to computable instances of these problems in terms of the Turing degrees and the arithmetical hierarchy. We succeed in giving a sharp characterization for the Canonical Ramsey Theorem for exponent 2 and for the Regressive Function Theorem for all exponents. These results rely heavily on a new, purely inductive, proof of the Canonical Ramsey Theorem. This study also unearths some interesting relationships between these two partition theorems, Ramsey’s Theorem, and Konig’s Lemma. 1
Forcing in Proof Theory
 BULL SYMB LOGIC
, 2004
"... Paul Cohen's method of forcing, together with Saul Kripke's related semantics for modal and intuitionistic logic, has had profound effects on a number of branches of mathematical logic, from set theory and model theory to constructive and categorical logic. Here, I argue that forcing also has a pla ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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Paul Cohen's method of forcing, together with Saul Kripke's related semantics for modal and intuitionistic logic, has had profound effects on a number of branches of mathematical logic, from set theory and model theory to constructive and categorical logic. Here, I argue that forcing also has a place in traditional Hilbertstyle proof theory, where the goal is to formalize portions of ordinary mathematics in restricted axiomatic theories, and study those theories in constructive or syntactic terms. I will discuss the aspects of forcing that are useful in this respect, and some sample applications. The latter include ways of obtaining conservation results for classical and intuitionistic theories, interpreting classical theories in constructive ones, and constructivizing modeltheoretic arguments.
Questions in Computable Algebra and Combinatorics
, 1999
"... this article, we will focus on two areas of computable mathematics, namely computable algebra and combinatorics. The goal of this article is to present a number of open questions in both computable algebra and computable combinatorics and to give the reader a sense of the research activity in these ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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this article, we will focus on two areas of computable mathematics, namely computable algebra and combinatorics. The goal of this article is to present a number of open questions in both computable algebra and computable combinatorics and to give the reader a sense of the research activity in these elds. Our philosophy is to try to highlight questions, whose solutions we feel will either give insight into algebra or combinatorics, or will require new technology in the computabilitytheoretical techniques needed. A good historical example of the rst phenomenom is the word problem for nitely presented groups which needed the development of a great deal of group theoretical machinery for its solution by Novikov [110] and Boone [10]. A good example of the latter phenomenon is the recent solution by Coles, Downey and Slaman [17] of the question of whether all rank one torsion free 1991 Mathematics Subject Classi cation. Primary 03D45; Secondary 03D25
Reverse Mathematics and Recursive Graph Theory
 Math. Log. Quart
, 1998
"... Abstract. We examine a number of results of infinite combinatorics using the techniques of reverse mathematics. Our results are inspired by similar results in recursive combinatorics. Theorems included concern colorings of graphs and bounded graphs, Euler paths, and Hamilton paths. Reverse mathemati ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Abstract. We examine a number of results of infinite combinatorics using the techniques of reverse mathematics. Our results are inspired by similar results in recursive combinatorics. Theorems included concern colorings of graphs and bounded graphs, Euler paths, and Hamilton paths. Reverse mathematics provides powerful techniques for analyzing the logical content of theorems. By contrast, recursive mathematics analyzes the effective content of theorems. In many cases, theorems of reverse mathematics have recursion theoretic corollaries. Conversely, theorems and techniques of recursive mathematics can often inspire related results in reverse mathematics, as demonstrated by the research presented here. In Section 1, a brief description of reverse mathematics is given. Sections 2 and 3 analyze theorems on graph colorings. Section 4 considers graphs with Euler paths. Stronger axiom systems are introduced in Section 5 and applied to the study of Hamilton paths in Section 6. 1. Reverse mathematics. In [4], Friedman defined subsystems of secondorder arithmetic useful in determining the prooftheoretic and recursiontheoretic strength of theorems. The language of
RAMSEY’S THEOREM FOR PAIRS AND PROVABLY RECURSIVE FUNCTIONS
"... Abstract. This paper addresses the strength of Ramsey’s theorem for pairs (RT2 2) over a weak base theory from the perspective of ‘proof mining’. Let RT 2− 2 denote Ramsey’s theorem for pairs where the coloring is given by an explicit term involving only numeric variables. We add this principle to a ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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Abstract. This paper addresses the strength of Ramsey’s theorem for pairs (RT2 2) over a weak base theory from the perspective of ‘proof mining’. Let RT 2− 2 denote Ramsey’s theorem for pairs where the coloring is given by an explicit term involving only numeric variables. We add this principle to a weak base theory that includes weak König’s lemma and a substantial amount of Σ0 1induction (enough to prove the totality of all primitive recursive functions but not of all primitive recursive functionals). In the resulting theory we show the extractability of primitive recursive programs and uniform bounds from proofs of ∀∃theorems. There are two components this work. The first component is a general prooftheoretic result, due to the second author ([13, 14]), that establishes conservation results for restricted principles of choice and comprehension over primitive recursive arithmetic PRA as well as a method for the extraction of primitive recursive bounds from proofs based on such principles. The second component is the main novelty of the paper: it is shown that a proof of Ramsey’s theorem due to Erdős and Rado can be formalized using these restricted principles. So from the perspective of proof unwinding the computational content of concrete proofs based on RT2 2 the computational complexity will, in most practical cases, not go beyond primitive recursive complexity. This even is the case when the theorem to be proved has function parameters f and the proof uses instances of RT2 2 that are primitive recursive in f. 1.
ProofTheoretic Strength of the Stable Marriage Theorem and Other Problems Reverse Mathematics, edited by S
 Simpson, ASL Lecture Notes in Logic 21, AK Peters (2005
"... We study the proof theoretic strength of several infinite versions of finite combinatorial theorem with respect to the standard Reverse Mathematics hierarchy of systems of second order arithmetic. In particular, we study three infinite extensions of the stable marriage theorem of Gale and Shapley. O ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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We study the proof theoretic strength of several infinite versions of finite combinatorial theorem with respect to the standard Reverse Mathematics hierarchy of systems of second order arithmetic. In particular, we study three infinite extensions of the stable marriage theorem of Gale and Shapley. Other theorems studied include some results on partially ordered sets due to Dilworth and to Dushnik and Miller. 1