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32
Computing Local Surface Orientation and Shape from Texture for Curved Surfaces
, 1997
"... Shape from texture is best analyzed in two stages, analogous to stereopsis and structure from motion: (a) Computing the `texture distortion' from the image, and (b) Interpreting the `texture distortion' to infer the orientation and shape of the surface in the scene. We model the texture distortion f ..."
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Cited by 88 (4 self)
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Shape from texture is best analyzed in two stages, analogous to stereopsis and structure from motion: (a) Computing the `texture distortion' from the image, and (b) Interpreting the `texture distortion' to infer the orientation and shape of the surface in the scene. We model the texture distortion for a given point and direction on the image plane as an affine transformation and derive the relationship between the parameters of this transformation and the shape parameters. We have developed a technique for estimating affine transforms between nearby image patches which is based on solving a system of linear constraints derived from a differential analysis. One need not explicitly identify texels or make restrictive assumptions about the nature of the texture such as isotropy. We use nonlinear minimization of a least squares error criterion to recover the surface orientation (slant and tilt) and shape (principal curvatures and directions) based on the estimated affine transforms in a number of different directions. A simple linear algorithm based on singular value decomposition of the linear parts of the affine transforms provides the initial guess for the minimization procedure. Experimental results on both planar and curved surfaces under perspective projection demonstrate good estimates for both orientation and shape. A sensitivity analysis yields predictions for both computer vision algorithms and human perception of shape from texture.
Shapeadapted smoothing in estimation of 3D depth cues from affine distortions of local 2D brightness structure
 IN PROC. 3RD EUROPEAN CONF. ON COMPUTER VISION
, 1994
"... Rotationally symmetric operations in the image domain may give rise to shape distortions. This article describes a way of reducing this effect for a general class of methods for deriving 3D shape cues from 2D image data, which are based on the estimation of locally linearized distortion of brightn ..."
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Cited by 68 (13 self)
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Rotationally symmetric operations in the image domain may give rise to shape distortions. This article describes a way of reducing this effect for a general class of methods for deriving 3D shape cues from 2D image data, which are based on the estimation of locally linearized distortion of brightness patterns. By extending the linear scalespace concept into an affine scalespace representation and performing affine shape adaption of the smoothing kernels, the accuracy of surface orientation estimates derived from texture and disparity cues can be improved by typically one order of magnitude. The reason for this is that the image descriptors, on which the methods are based, will be relative invariant under a ne transformations, and the error will thus be confined to the higherorder terms in the locally linearized perspective mapping.
Direct Computation of Shape Cues Using ScaleAdapted Spatial Derivative Operators
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1996
"... This paper addresses the problem of computing cues to the threedimensional structure of surfaces in the world directly from the local structure of the brightness pattern of either a single monocular image or a binocular image pair. It is shown that starting from Gaussian derivatives of order up to ..."
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Cited by 54 (7 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of computing cues to the threedimensional structure of surfaces in the world directly from the local structure of the brightness pattern of either a single monocular image or a binocular image pair. It is shown that starting from Gaussian derivatives of order up to two at a range of scales in scalespace, local estimates of (i) surface orientation from monocular texture foreshortening, (ii) surface orientation from monocular texture gradients, and (iii) surface orientation from the binocular disparity gradient can be computed without iteration or search, and by using essentially the same basic mechanism. The methodology is based on a multiscale descriptor of image structure called the windowed second moment matrix, which is computed with adaptive selection of both scale levels and spatial positions. Notably, this descriptor comprises two scale parameters; a local scale parameter describing the amount of smoothing used in derivative computations, and a...
Shapeadapted smoothing in estimation of 3D shape cues from affine distortions of local 2D brightness structure
, 2001
"... This article describes a method for reducing the shape distortions due to scalespace smoothing that arise in the computation of 3D shape cues using operators (derivatives) de ned from scalespace representation. More precisely, we are concerned with a general class of methods for deriving 3D shap ..."
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Cited by 52 (3 self)
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This article describes a method for reducing the shape distortions due to scalespace smoothing that arise in the computation of 3D shape cues using operators (derivatives) de ned from scalespace representation. More precisely, we are concerned with a general class of methods for deriving 3D shape cues from 2D image data based on the estimation of locally linearized deformations of brightness patterns. This class
Shape From Texture for Smooth Curved Surfaces in Perspective Projection
 Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision
, 1992
"... Projective distortion of surface texture observed in a perspective image can provide direct information about the shape of the underlying surface. Previous theories have generally concerned planar surfaces; in this paper we present a systematic analysis of first and secondorder texture distortion ..."
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Cited by 49 (6 self)
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Projective distortion of surface texture observed in a perspective image can provide direct information about the shape of the underlying surface. Previous theories have generally concerned planar surfaces; in this paper we present a systematic analysis of first and secondorder texture distortion cues for the case of a smooth curved surface. In particular, we analyze several kinds of texture gradients and relate them to surface orientation and surface curvature. The local estimates obtained from these cues can be integrated to obtain a global surface shape, and we show that the two surfaces resulting from the wellknown tilt ambiguity in the local foreshortening cue typically have qualitatively different shapes. As an example of a practical application of the analysis, a shape from texture algorithm based on local orientationselective filtering is described, and some experimental results are shown. i Figure 1: This image of a slanting plane covered with circles illustrates several...
Shape from Texture from a MultiScale Perspective
 Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Computer Vision
, 1993
"... : The problem of scale in shape from texture is addressed. The need for (at least) two scale parameters is emphasized; a local scale describing the amount of smoothing used for suppressing noise and irrelevant details when computing primitive texture descriptors from image data, and an integration s ..."
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Cited by 38 (14 self)
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: The problem of scale in shape from texture is addressed. The need for (at least) two scale parameters is emphasized; a local scale describing the amount of smoothing used for suppressing noise and irrelevant details when computing primitive texture descriptors from image data, and an integration scale describing the size of the region in space over which the statistics of the local descriptors is accumulated. A novel mechanism for automatic scale selection is proposed, based on normalized derivatives. It is used for adaptive determination of the two scale parameters in a multiscale texture descriptor, the windowed second moment matrix, which is defined in terms of Gaussian smoothing, first order derivatives, and nonlinear pointwise combinations of these. The same scaleselection method can be used for multiscale blob detection without any tuning parameters or thresholding. The resulting texture description can be combined with various assumptions about surface texture in order to ...
Fingerprint Enhancement by Shape Adaptation of ScaleSpace Operators with Automatic Scale Selection
"... This work presents two mechanisms for processing fingerprint images; shapeadapted smoothing based on second moment descriptors and automatic scale selection based on normalized derivatives. The shape adaptation procedure adapts the smoothing operation to the local ridge structures, which allows int ..."
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Cited by 38 (9 self)
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This work presents two mechanisms for processing fingerprint images; shapeadapted smoothing based on second moment descriptors and automatic scale selection based on normalized derivatives. The shape adaptation procedure adapts the smoothing operation to the local ridge structures, which allows interrupted ridges to be joined without destroying essential singularities such as branching points and enforces continuity of their directional fields. The scale selection procedure estimates local ridge width and adapts the amount of smoothing to the local amount of noise. In addition, a ridgeness measure is defined, which reflects how well the local image structure agrees with a qualitative ridge model, and is used for spreading the results of shape adaptation into noisy areas. The combined approach makes it possible to resolve fine scale structures in clear areas while reducing the risk of enhancing noise in blurred or fragmented areas. The result is a reliable and adaptively detailed estimate of the ridge orientation field and ridge width, as well as a smoothed greylevel version of the input image. We propose that these general techniques should be of interest to developers of automatic fingerprint identification
PLANAR SURFACE ORIENTATION FROM TEXTURE SPATIAL FREQUENCIES
, 1995
"... This paper presents a computational model and a practical algorithm for determining the threedimensional orientation of a planar surface from visual texture information. The model consists of three parts: (1) a local spatial frequency based texture representation; (2) a model describing the projec ..."
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Cited by 28 (1 self)
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This paper presents a computational model and a practical algorithm for determining the threedimensional orientation of a planar surface from visual texture information. The model consists of three parts: (1) a local spatial frequency based texture representation; (2) a model describing the projection of surface texture to image texture; and (3) a solution of the texture projection model for the surface orientation under an assumption of surface texture homogeneity. The algorithm first measures the dominant frequency at each image point using three waveletlike transforms, and then finds the surface orientation that minimizes the variance of the image frequencies' backprojections. The algorithm is tested on photographs of realworld surfaces, exhibiting an average accuracy of better than 3 ° in slant and 4 ° in tilt. The current model and algorithm are more accurate, yet substantially simpler, than earlier versions of this approach.
Affine Invariant Texture Segmentation and Shape From Texture by Variational Methods
, 1998
"... We address the problem of texture segmentation by using a novel affine invariant model. The introduction of affine invariance as a requirement for texture analysis goes beyond what is known of the human performance and also beyond the psychophysical theories. We propose to compute texture features u ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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We address the problem of texture segmentation by using a novel affine invariant model. The introduction of affine invariance as a requirement for texture analysis goes beyond what is known of the human performance and also beyond the psychophysical theories. We propose to compute texture features using affine invariant intrinsic neighborhoods and affine invariant intrinsic orientation matrices. We discuss several possibilities for the definition of the channels and give comparative experimental results where an affine invariant MumfordShah type energy functional is used to compute the multichannel affine invariant segmentation. We prove that the method is able to retrieve faithfully the texture regions and to recover the shape from texture information in images where several textures are present. The numerical algorithm is multiscale.
Shape from Texture and Contour by Weak Isotropy
 J. of Artificial Intelligence
, 1993
"... A unified framework for shape from texture and contour is proposed. It is based on the assumption that the surface markings are not systematically compressed, or formally, that they are weakly isotropic. The weak isotropy principle is based on analysis of the directional statistics of the projected ..."
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Cited by 25 (6 self)
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A unified framework for shape from texture and contour is proposed. It is based on the assumption that the surface markings are not systematically compressed, or formally, that they are weakly isotropic. The weak isotropy principle is based on analysis of the directional statistics of the projected surface markings. It builds on several previous theories, in particular by Witkin [25] and Kanatani [15]. It extends these theories in various ways, most notably to perspective projection. The theory also provides an exact solution to an estimation problem earlier solved approximately by Kanatani. The weak isotropy principle leads to a computationally efficient algorithm, WISP, for estimation of surface orientation. WISP uses simple image observables that are shown to be direct correlates of the surface orientation to compute an initial approximate estimate in a single step. In certain simple cases this first estimate is exact, and in experiments with natural images it is typically within 5...