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SRILM  An extensible language modeling toolkit
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SPOKEN LANGUAGE PROCESSING (ICSLP 2002
, 2002
"... SRILM is a collection of C++ libraries, executable programs, and helper scripts designed to allow both production of and experimentation with statistical language models for speech recognition and other applications. SRILM is freely available for noncommercial purposes. The toolkit supports creation ..."
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Cited by 1128 (18 self)
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SRILM is a collection of C++ libraries, executable programs, and helper scripts designed to allow both production of and experimentation with statistical language models for speech recognition and other applications. SRILM is freely available for noncommercial purposes. The toolkit supports creation and evaluation of a variety of language model types based on Ngram statistics, as well as several related tasks, such as statistical tagging and manipulation of Nbest lists and word lattices. This paper summarizes the functionality of the toolkit and discusses its design and implementation, highlighting ease of rapid prototyping, reusability, and combinability of tools.
Statistical Language Modeling Using The CmuCambridge Toolkit
, 1997
"... The CMU Statistical Language Modeling toolkit was released in 1994 in order to facilitate the construction and testing of bigram and trigram language models. It is currently in use in over 40 academic, government and industrial laboratories in over 12 countries. This paper presents a new version of ..."
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Cited by 385 (4 self)
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The CMU Statistical Language Modeling toolkit was released in 1994 in order to facilitate the construction and testing of bigram and trigram language models. It is currently in use in over 40 academic, government and industrial laboratories in over 12 countries. This paper presents a new version of the toolkit. We outline the conventional language modeling technology, as implemented in the toolkit, and describe the extra efficiency and functionality that the new toolkit provides as compared to previous software for this task. Finally,we give an example of the use of the toolkit in constructing and testing a simple language model.
A Maximum Entropy Approach to Adaptive Statistical Language Modeling
 Computer, Speech and Language
, 1996
"... An adaptive statistical languagemodel is described, which successfullyintegrates long distancelinguistic information with other knowledge sources. Most existing statistical language models exploit only the immediate history of a text. To extract information from further back in the document's h ..."
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Cited by 291 (12 self)
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An adaptive statistical languagemodel is described, which successfullyintegrates long distancelinguistic information with other knowledge sources. Most existing statistical language models exploit only the immediate history of a text. To extract information from further back in the document's history, we propose and use trigger pairs as the basic information bearing elements. This allows the model to adapt its expectations to the topic of discourse. Next, statistical evidence from multiple sources must be combined. Traditionally, linear interpolation and its variants have been used, but these are shown here to be seriously deficient. Instead, we apply the principle of Maximum Entropy (ME). Each information source gives rise to a set of constraints, to be imposed on the combined estimate. The intersection of these constraints is the set of probability functions which are consistent with all the information sources. The function with the highest entropy within that set is the ME solution...
Dialogue act modeling for automatic tagging and recognition of conversational speech
 COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
, 2000
"... We describe a statistical approach for modeling dialogue acts in conversational speech, i.e., speecactlike ..."
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Cited by 272 (14 self)
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We describe a statistical approach for modeling dialogue acts in conversational speech, i.e., speecactlike
Two decades of statistical language modeling: Where do we go from here
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2000
"... Statistical Language Models estimate the distribution of various natural language phenomena for the purpose of speech recognition and other language technologies. Since the first significant model was proposed in 1980, many attempts have been made to improve the state of the art. We review them here ..."
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Cited by 207 (1 self)
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Statistical Language Models estimate the distribution of various natural language phenomena for the purpose of speech recognition and other language technologies. Since the first significant model was proposed in 1980, many attempts have been made to improve the state of the art. We review them here, point to a few promising directions, and argue for a Bayesian approach to integration of linguistic theories with data. 1. OUTLINE Statistical language modeling (SLM) is the attempt to capture regularities of natural language for the purpose of improving the performance of various natural language applications. By and large, statistical language modeling amounts to estimating the probability distribution of various linguistic units, such as words, sentences, and whole documents. Statistical language modeling is crucial for a large variety of language technology applications. These include speech recognition (where SLM got its start), machine translation, document classification and routing, optical character recognition, information retrieval, handwriting recognition, spelling correction, and many more. In machine translation, for example, purely statistical approaches have been introduced in [1]. But even researchers using rulebased approaches have found it beneficial to introduce some elements of SLM and statistical estimation [2]. In information retrieval, a language modeling approach was recently proposed by [3], and a statistical/information theoretical approach was developed by [4]. SLM employs statistical estimation techniques using language training data, that is, text. Because of the categorical nature of language, and the large vocabularies people naturally use, statistical techniques must estimate a large number of parameters, and consequently depend critically on the availability of large amounts of training data.
Modeling local coherence: An entitybased approach
 In Proceedings of ACL 2005
, 2005
"... This paper considers the problem of automatic assessment of local coherence. We present a novel entitybased representation of discourse which is inspired by Centering Theory and can be computed automatically from raw text. We view coherence assessment as a ranking learning problem and show that the ..."
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Cited by 185 (14 self)
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This paper considers the problem of automatic assessment of local coherence. We present a novel entitybased representation of discourse which is inspired by Centering Theory and can be computed automatically from raw text. We view coherence assessment as a ranking learning problem and show that the proposed discourse representation supports the effective learning of a ranking function. Our experiments demonstrate that the induced model achieves significantly higher accuracy than a stateoftheart coherence model. 1
Unbounded length contexts for PPM
 in Proc. Data Compression Conf., DCC95
, 1995
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A Bit of Progress in Language Modeling
, 2001
"... Language modeling is the art of determining the probability of a sequence of words. This is useful in a large variety of areas including speech recognition, optical character recognition, handwriting recognition, machine translation, and spelling correction (Church, 1988; Brown et al., 1990; Hull, 1 ..."
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Cited by 114 (2 self)
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Language modeling is the art of determining the probability of a sequence of words. This is useful in a large variety of areas including speech recognition, optical character recognition, handwriting recognition, machine translation, and spelling correction (Church, 1988; Brown et al., 1990; Hull, 1992; Kernighan et al., 1990; Srihari and Baltus, 1992). The most commonly used language models are very simple (e.g. a Katzsmoothed trigram model). There are many improvements over this simple model however, including caching, clustering, higherorder ngrams, skipping models, and sentencemixture models, all of which we will describe below. Unfortunately, these more complicated techniques have rarely been examined in combination. It is entirely possible that two techniques that work well separately will not work well together, and, as we will show, even possible that some techniques will work better together than either one does by itself. In this...
Language Model Adaptation Using Mixtures And An Exponentially Decaying Cache
 In Proceedings of ICASSP97
, 1997
"... This paper presents two techniques for language model adaptation. The first is based on the use of mixtures of language models: the training text is partitioned according to topic, a language model is constructed for each component, and at recognition time appropriate weightings are assigned to each ..."
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Cited by 104 (4 self)
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This paper presents two techniques for language model adaptation. The first is based on the use of mixtures of language models: the training text is partitioned according to topic, a language model is constructed for each component, and at recognition time appropriate weightings are assigned to each component to model the observed style of language. The second technique is based on augmenting the standard trigram model with a cache component in which words recurrence probabilities decay exponentially over time. Both techniques yield a significant reduction in perplexity over the baseline trigram language model when faced with multidomain test text, the mixturebased model giving a 24% reduction and the cachebased model giving a 14% reduction. The two techniques attack the problem of adaptation at different scales, and as a result can be used in parallel to give a total perplexity reduction of 30%. 1. INTRODUCTION In constructing a language model intended for general text, one is fac...