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17
ANCESTRAL GRAPH MARKOV MODELS
, 2002
"... This paper introduces a class of graphical independence models that is closed under marginalization and conditioning but that contains all DAG independence models. This class of graphs, called maximal ancestral graphs, has two attractive features: there is at most one edge between each pair of verti ..."
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Cited by 74 (17 self)
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This paper introduces a class of graphical independence models that is closed under marginalization and conditioning but that contains all DAG independence models. This class of graphs, called maximal ancestral graphs, has two attractive features: there is at most one edge between each pair of vertices; every missing edge corresponds to an independence relation. These features lead to a simple parameterization of the corresponding set of distributions in the Gaussian case.
Causal Inference from Graphical Models
, 2001
"... Introduction The introduction of Bayesian networks (Pearl 1986b) and associated local computation algorithms (Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter 1988, Shenoy and Shafer 1990, Jensen, Lauritzen and Olesen 1990) has initiated a renewed interest for understanding causal concepts in connection with modelling ..."
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Cited by 56 (4 self)
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Introduction The introduction of Bayesian networks (Pearl 1986b) and associated local computation algorithms (Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter 1988, Shenoy and Shafer 1990, Jensen, Lauritzen and Olesen 1990) has initiated a renewed interest for understanding causal concepts in connection with modelling complex stochastic systems. It has become clear that graphical models, in particular those based upon directed acyclic graphs, have natural causal interpretations and thus form a base for a language in which causal concepts can be discussed and analysed in precise terms. As a consequence there has been an explosion of writings, not primarily within mainstream statistical literature, concerned with the exploitation of this language to clarify and extend causal concepts. Among these we mention in particular books by Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines (1993), Shafer (1996), and Pearl (2000) as well as the collection of papers in Glymour and Cooper (1999). Very briefly, but fundamentally,
Graphs, Causality, And Structural Equation Models
, 1998
"... Structural equation modeling (SEM) has dominated causal analysis in the social and behavioral sciences since the 1960s. Currently, many SEM practitioners are having difficulty articulating the causal content of SEM and are seeking foundational answers. ..."
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Cited by 44 (14 self)
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Structural equation modeling (SEM) has dominated causal analysis in the social and behavioral sciences since the 1960s. Currently, many SEM practitioners are having difficulty articulating the causal content of SEM and are seeking foundational answers.
Markov properties for acyclic directed mixed graphs
 Scandinavian Journal of Statistics
, 2003
"... We consider acyclic directed mixed graphs, in which directed edges (x → y) and bidirected edges (x ↔ y) may occur. A simple extension of Pearl’s dseparation criterion, called mseparation, is applied to these graphs. We introduce a local Markov property which is equivalent to the global property r ..."
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Cited by 36 (5 self)
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We consider acyclic directed mixed graphs, in which directed edges (x → y) and bidirected edges (x ↔ y) may occur. A simple extension of Pearl’s dseparation criterion, called mseparation, is applied to these graphs. We introduce a local Markov property which is equivalent to the global property resulting from the mseparation criterion.
Markov equivalence for ancestral graphs
, 2004
"... Ancestral graph models can encode conditional independence relations that arise in directed acyclic graph (DAG) models with latent and selection variables. However, for any 3JJ.cestral graph, there may be several other graphs to which it is Markov equivalent. We state and prove conditions under whic ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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Ancestral graph models can encode conditional independence relations that arise in directed acyclic graph (DAG) models with latent and selection variables. However, for any 3JJ.cestral graph, there may be several other graphs to which it is Markov equivalent. We state and prove conditions under which two maximal ancestral graphs are Markov equivalent to each other, thereby extending analogous results for DAGs given by other authors. 'University of W2k'lhi.ng1;on Technical No. 466. Contents
Covariance Chains
 Bernoulli
, 2006
"... Covariance matrices which can be arranged in tridiagonal form are called covariance chains. They are used to clarify some issues of parameter equivalence and of independence equivalence for linear models in which a set of latent variables influences a set of observed variables. For this purpose, ort ..."
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Cited by 12 (8 self)
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Covariance matrices which can be arranged in tridiagonal form are called covariance chains. They are used to clarify some issues of parameter equivalence and of independence equivalence for linear models in which a set of latent variables influences a set of observed variables. For this purpose, orthogonal decompositions for covariance chains are derived first in explicit form. Covariance chains are also contrasted to concentration chains, for which estimation is explicit and simple. For this purpose, maximumlikelihood equations are derived first for exponential families when some parameters satisfy zero value constraints. From these equations explicit estimates are obtained, which are asymptotically efficient, and they are applied to covariance chains. Simulation results confirm the satisfactory behaviour of the explicit covariance chain estimates also in moderatesize samples.
Multiple testing and error control in Gaussian graphical model selection
 Statistical Science
"... Abstract. Graphical models provide a framework for exploration of multivariate dependence patterns. The connection between graph and statistical model is made by identifying the vertices of the graph with the observed variables and translating the pattern of edges in the graph into a pattern of cond ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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Abstract. Graphical models provide a framework for exploration of multivariate dependence patterns. The connection between graph and statistical model is made by identifying the vertices of the graph with the observed variables and translating the pattern of edges in the graph into a pattern of conditional independences that is imposed on the variables ’ joint distribution. Focusing on Gaussian models, we review classical graphical models. For these models the defining conditional independences are equivalent to vanishing of certain (partial) correlation coefficients associated with individual edges that are absent from the graph. Hence, Gaussian graphical model selection can be performed by multiple testing of hypotheses about vanishing (partial) correlation coefficients. We show and exemplify how this approach allows one to perform model selection while controlling error rates for incorrect edge inclusion. Key words and phrases: Acyclic directed graph, Bayesian network, bidirected graph, chain graph, concentration graph, covariance graph, DAG, graphical model, multiple testing, undirected graph. 1.
Discrete chain graph models
 Bernoulli
, 2009
"... The statistical literature discusses different types of Markov properties for chain graphs that lead to four possible classes of chain graph Markov models. The different models are rather well understood when the observations are continuous and multivariate normal, and it is also known that one mode ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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The statistical literature discusses different types of Markov properties for chain graphs that lead to four possible classes of chain graph Markov models. The different models are rather well understood when the observations are continuous and multivariate normal, and it is also known that one model class, referred to as models of LWF (Lauritzen–Wermuth–Frydenberg) or block concentration type, yields discrete models for categorical data that are smooth. This paper considers the structural properties of the discrete models based on the three alternative Markov properties. It is shown by example that two of the alternative Markov properties can lead to nonsmooth models. The remaining model class, which can be viewed as a discrete version of multivariate regressions, is proven to comprise only smooth models. The proof employs a simple change of coordinates that also reveals that the model’s likelihood function is unimodal if the chain components of the graph are complete sets.
Graphical modelling of multivariate time series
, 2001
"... Abstract. We introduce graphical time series models for the analysis of dynamic relationships among variables in multivariate time series. The modelling approach is based on the notion of strong Granger causality and can be applied to time series with nonlinear dependencies. The models are derived ..."
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Cited by 10 (5 self)
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Abstract. We introduce graphical time series models for the analysis of dynamic relationships among variables in multivariate time series. The modelling approach is based on the notion of strong Granger causality and can be applied to time series with nonlinear dependencies. The models are derived from ordinary time series models by imposing constraints that are encoded by mixed graphs. In these graphs each component series is represented by a single vertex and directed edges indicate possible Grangercausal relationships between variables while undirected edges are used to map the contemporaneous dependence structure. We introduce various notions of Grangercausal Markov properties and discuss the relationships among them and to other Markov properties that can be applied in this context.
Graphical methods for efficient likelihood inference in gaussian covariance models
 Journal of Machine Learning
, 2008
"... Abstract. In graphical modelling, a bidirected graph encodes marginal independences among random variables that are identified with the vertices of the graph. We show how to transform a bidirected graph into a maximal ancestral graph that (i) represents the same independence structure as the origi ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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Abstract. In graphical modelling, a bidirected graph encodes marginal independences among random variables that are identified with the vertices of the graph. We show how to transform a bidirected graph into a maximal ancestral graph that (i) represents the same independence structure as the original bidirected graph, and (ii) minimizes the number of arrowheads among all ancestral graphs satisfying (i). Here the number of arrowheads of an ancestral graph is the number of directed edges plus twice the number of bidirected edges. In Gaussian models, this construction can be used for more efficient iterative maximization of the likelihood function and to determine when maximum likelihood estimates are equal to empirical counterparts. 1.