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Modular Data Structure Verification
 EECS DEPARTMENT, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
, 2007
"... This dissertation describes an approach for automatically verifying data structures, focusing on techniques for automatically proving formulas that arise in such verification. I have implemented this approach with my colleagues in a verification system called Jahob. Jahob verifies properties of Java ..."
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Cited by 36 (21 self)
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This dissertation describes an approach for automatically verifying data structures, focusing on techniques for automatically proving formulas that arise in such verification. I have implemented this approach with my colleagues in a verification system called Jahob. Jahob verifies properties of Java programs with dynamically allocated data structures. Developers write Jahob specifications in classical higherorder logic (HOL); Jahob reduces the verification problem to deciding the validity of HOL formulas. I present a new method for proving HOL formulas by combining automated reasoning techniques. My method consists of 1) splitting formulas into individual HOL conjuncts, 2) soundly approximating each HOL conjunct with a formula in a more tractable fragment and 3) proving the resulting approximation using a decision procedure or a theorem prover. I present three concrete logics; for each logic I show how to use it to approximate HOL formulas, and how to decide the validity of formulas in this logic. First, I present an approximation of HOL based on a translation to firstorder logic, which enables the use of existing resolutionbased theorem provers. Second, I present an approximation of HOL based on field constraint analysis, a new technique that enables
Deciding Boolean Algebra with Presburger Arithmetic
 J. of Automated Reasoning
"... Abstract. We describe an algorithm for deciding the firstorder multisorted theory BAPA, which combines 1) Boolean algebras of sets of uninterpreted elements (BA) and 2) Presburger arithmetic operations (PA). BAPA can express the relationship between integer variables and cardinalities of unbounded ..."
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Cited by 31 (26 self)
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Abstract. We describe an algorithm for deciding the firstorder multisorted theory BAPA, which combines 1) Boolean algebras of sets of uninterpreted elements (BA) and 2) Presburger arithmetic operations (PA). BAPA can express the relationship between integer variables and cardinalities of unbounded finite sets, and supports arbitrary quantification over sets and integers. Our original motivation for BAPA is deciding verification conditions that arise in the static analysis of data structure consistency properties. Data structures often use an integer variable to keep track of the number of elements they store; an invariant of such a data structure is that the value of the integer variable is equal to the number of elements stored in the data structure. When the data structure content is represented by a set, the resulting constraints can be captured in BAPA. BAPA formulas with quantifier alternations arise when verifying programs with annotations containing quantifiers, or when proving simulation relation conditions for refinement and equivalence of program fragments. Furthermore, BAPA constraints can be used for proving the termination of programs that manipulate data structures, as well as
Towards efficient satisfiability checking for boolean algebra with presburger arithmetic
 In CADE21
, 2007
"... 1 Introduction This paper considers the satisfiability problem for a logic that allows reasoning about sets and their cardinalities. We call this logic quantifierfree Boolean Algebra with Presburger Arithmetic and denote it QFBAPA. Our motivationfor QFBAPA is proving the validity of formulas arisi ..."
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Cited by 28 (17 self)
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1 Introduction This paper considers the satisfiability problem for a logic that allows reasoning about sets and their cardinalities. We call this logic quantifierfree Boolean Algebra with Presburger Arithmetic and denote it QFBAPA. Our motivationfor QFBAPA is proving the validity of formulas arising from program verification [12,13,14], but
Decision Procedures for Multisets with Cardinality Constraints
"... Abstract. Applications in software verification and interactive theorem proving often involve reasoning about sets of objects. Cardinality constraints on such collections also arise in these applications. Multisets arise in these applications for analogous reasons as sets: abstracting the content of ..."
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Cited by 11 (7 self)
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Abstract. Applications in software verification and interactive theorem proving often involve reasoning about sets of objects. Cardinality constraints on such collections also arise in these applications. Multisets arise in these applications for analogous reasons as sets: abstracting the content of linked data structure with duplicate elements leads to multisets. Interactive theorem provers such as Isabelle specify theories of multisets and prove a number of theorems about them to enable their use in interactive verification. However, the decidability and complexity of constraints on multisets is much less understood than for constraints on sets. The first contribution of this paper is a polynomialspace algorithm for deciding expressive quantifierfree constraints on multisets with cardinality operators. Our decision procedure reduces in polynomial time constraints on multisets to constraints in an extension of quantifierfree Presburger arithmetic with certain “unbounded sum ” expressions. We prove bounds on solutions of resulting constraints and describe a polynomialspace decision procedure for these constraints. The second contribution of this paper is a proof that adding quantifiers to a constraint language containing subset and cardinality operators yields undecidable constraints. The result follows by reduction from Hilbert’s 10th problem. 1
Implications of a data structure consistency checking system
 In Int. conf. on Verified Software: Theories, Tools, Experiments (VSTTE, IFIP Working Group 2.3 Conference
, 2005
"... Abstract. We present a framework for verifying that programs correctly preserve important data structure consistency properties. Results from our implemented system indicate that our system can effectively enable the scalable verification of very precise data structure consistency properties within ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Abstract. We present a framework for verifying that programs correctly preserve important data structure consistency properties. Results from our implemented system indicate that our system can effectively enable the scalable verification of very precise data structure consistency properties within complete programs. Our system treats both internal properties, which deal with a single data structure implementation, and external properties, which deal with properties that involve multiple data structures. A key aspect of our system is that it enables multiple analysis and verification packages to productively interoperate to analyze a single program. In particular, it supports the targeted use of very precise, unscalable analyses in the context of a larger analysis and verification system. The integration of different analyses in our system is based on a common setbased specification language: precise analyses verify that data structures conform to set specifications, whereas scalable analyses verify relationships between data structures and preconditions of data structure operations. There are several reasons why our system may be of interest in a broader program analysis and verification effort. First, it can ensure that the program satisfies important data structure consistency properties, which is an important goal in and of itself. Second, it can provide information that insulates other analysis and verification tools from having to deal directly with pointers and data structure implementations, thereby enabling these tools to focus on the key properties that they are designed to analyze. Finally, we expect other developers to be able to leverage its basic structuring concepts to enable the scalable verification of other program safety and correctness properties. 1
Polynomial Constraints for Sets with Cardinality Bounds
"... Abstract. Logics that can reason about sets and their cardinality bounds are useful in program analysis, program verification, databases, and knowledge bases. This paper presents a class of constraints on sets and their cardinalities for which the satisfiability and the entailment problems are compu ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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Abstract. Logics that can reason about sets and their cardinality bounds are useful in program analysis, program verification, databases, and knowledge bases. This paper presents a class of constraints on sets and their cardinalities for which the satisfiability and the entailment problems are computable in polynomial time. Our class of constraints, based on treeshaped formulas, is unique in being simultaneously tractable and able to express 1) that a set is a union of other sets, 2) that sets are disjoint, and 3) that a set has cardinality within a given range. As the main result we present a polynomialtime algorithm for checking entailment of our constraints.
September 2008Complexity of Modal Logics with Presburger Constraints 1
"... We introduce the extended modal logic EXML with regularity constraints and full Presburger constraints on the number of children that generalize graded modalities, also known as number restrictions in description logics. We show that EXML satisfiability is only pspacecomplete by designing a Ladner ..."
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We introduce the extended modal logic EXML with regularity constraints and full Presburger constraints on the number of children that generalize graded modalities, also known as number restrictions in description logics. We show that EXML satisfiability is only pspacecomplete by designing a Ladnerlike algorithm. This extends a wellknown and nontrivial pspace upper bound for graded modal logic. Furthermore, we provide a detailed comparison with logics that contain Presburger constraints and that are dedicated to query XML documents. As an application, we provide a logarithmic reduction from Sheaves logic SL into EXML that allows us to establish that SL satisfiability is also pspacecomplete, significantly improving the best known upper bound. Key words: modal logic, Ladnerlike algorithm, Presburger constraint, regularity constraint, computational complexity 1