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Congestion Control With Explicit Rate Indication
 PROC. ICC'95
, 1995
"... As the speed and the dynamic range of computer networks evolve, the issue of efficient traffic management becomes increasingly important. This work describes an approach to traffic management using explicit rate information provided to the source by the network. We present an asynchronous distribute ..."
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Cited by 121 (15 self)
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As the speed and the dynamic range of computer networks evolve, the issue of efficient traffic management becomes increasingly important. This work describes an approach to traffic management using explicit rate information provided to the source by the network. We present an asynchronous distributed algorithm for optimal rate calculation across the network, where optimality is understood in the maxmin sense. The algorithm quickly converges to the optimal rates and is shown to be wellbehaved in transience. 1 Introduction 1.1 Background In the past decade several mechanisms for congestion control have been developed and implemented. DECbit [34] and Slow Start [20] are perhaps the best known. Both of these schemes were developed for connectionless networks with window flow control, in which the routers had no knowledge of the individual flows and their demands, the routes changed frequently and the header space was scarce. With the rapid increase of the ratio of propagation delay to...
RoundRobin Scheduling for MaxMin Fairness in Data Networks
 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS
, 1991
"... This paper studies a simple strategy, proposed independently by Gallager [1] and Katevenis [2], for fairly allocating link capacity in a pointtopoint packet network with virtual circuit routing. Each link offers its packet transmission slots to its user sessions by polling them in roundrobin orde ..."
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Cited by 109 (0 self)
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This paper studies a simple strategy, proposed independently by Gallager [1] and Katevenis [2], for fairly allocating link capacity in a pointtopoint packet network with virtual circuit routing. Each link offers its packet transmission slots to its user sessions by polling them in roundrobin order. In addition, window flow control is used to prevent excessive packet queues at the network nodes. As the window size increases, the session throughput rates are shown to approach limits that are perfectly fair in the maxmin sense. That is, the smallest session rate in the network is as large as possible and, subject to that constraint, the secondsmallest session rate is as large as possible, etc. If each session has periodic input (perhaps with jitter) or has such heavy demand that packets are always waiting to enter the network, then a finite window size suffices to produce perfectly fair throughput rates. The roundrobin method is considerably simpler than earlier strategies for achieving global fairness. The fair session rates are not explicitly computed, and the only overhead communication is that required for the window acknowledgments. The main drawback is that large windows are needed to achieve even approximately fair throughputs in some (hopefully rare) situations, and large windows permit large crossnetwork delays. Fortunately, the roundrobin method offers other throughput guarantees that, while falling short of perfect fairness, do apply even for sessions with small windows. Such sessions are promised reasonable bounds on their crossnetwork packet delay as well.
An Algorithm for Rate Allocation in PacketSwitching Network with Feedback
"... As the speed and complexity of computer networks evolve, sharing network resources becomes increasingly important. Thus, the issue of how to allocate the available bandwidth among the multitude of users needs to be addressed. Such allocation needs to be in some sense efficient and fair to different ..."
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Cited by 79 (3 self)
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As the speed and complexity of computer networks evolve, sharing network resources becomes increasingly important. Thus, the issue of how to allocate the available bandwidth among the multitude of users needs to be addressed. Such allocation needs to be in some sense efficient and fair to different users. In this work the socalled maxmin fairness is chosen as the optimality criterion. A new distributed and asynchronous algorithm is suggested. The algorithm is shown to converge to the optimal rate allocation in a network with general topology under dynamic changes in the set of network users, individual user load and occasional route changes. An upper bound on convergence time is given. The algorithm is shown to be wellbehaved in transience. Unlike previous work, the algorithm takes bandwidth consumed by feedback traffic into account. Further, an extension of the algorithm is suggested to address the problem of policing misbehaved users.
Phantom: A Simple and Effective Flow Control Scheme
 IN PROC. OF ACM SIGCOMM
, 1996
"... This paper presents Phantom, a simple constant space algorithm for rate based flow control. As shown by our simulations, it converges fast to a fair rate allocation while generating a moderate queue length. While our approach can be easily implemented in ATM switches for managing ABR traffic, it ..."
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Cited by 28 (1 self)
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This paper presents Phantom, a simple constant space algorithm for rate based flow control. As shown by our simulations, it converges fast to a fair rate allocation while generating a moderate queue length. While our approach can be easily implemented in ATM switches for managing ABR traffic, it is also suitable for flow control in TCP router based networks. Both the introduced overhead and the required modifications in TCP flow control systems are minimal. The implementation of this approach in TCP guarantees fairness and provides a unifying interconnection between TCP routers and ATM networks. The new algorithm easily interoperates with current TCP flow control mechanisms and thus can be gradually introduced into installed based TCP networks.
Stochastic Fairness Queuing
, 1991
"... Fairness queuing has recently been proposed as an effective way to insulate users of large computer communication datagram networks from congestion caused by the activities of other (possibly illbehaved) users. Unfortunately, fair queuing as proposed by Shenker et al. [DKS89] requires that each con ..."
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Cited by 26 (2 self)
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Fairness queuing has recently been proposed as an effective way to insulate users of large computer communication datagram networks from congestion caused by the activities of other (possibly illbehaved) users. Unfortunately, fair queuing as proposed by Shenker et al. [DKS89] requires that each conversation z be mapped into its own queue. While there are many known methods of implementing this type of mapping, they are relatively slow, requiring numerous memory references, and thus do not lend themselves to a software or firmware implementation capable of operating in highspeed networks.
A Generalized MaxMin Rate Allocation Policy and Its Distributed Implementation Using the ABR Flow Control Mechanism
, 1998
"... We generalize the classical maxmin rate allocation policy with the support of the minimum rate requirement and peak rate constraint for each connection. Since a centralized algorithm for the generalized maxmin (GMM) rate allocation requires global information, which is difficult to maintain and man ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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We generalize the classical maxmin rate allocation policy with the support of the minimum rate requirement and peak rate constraint for each connection. Since a centralized algorithm for the generalized maxmin (GMM) rate allocation requires global information, which is difficult to maintain and manage in a large network, we develop a distributed protocol to achieve the GMM policy using the available bit rate (ABR) flow control mechanism. We give a proof that our distributed protocol converges to the GMM rate allocation through distributed and asynchronous iterations under any network configuration and any set of link distances.
Approximating MaxMin Fair Rates via Distributed Local Scheduling with Partial Information
, 1996
"... MaxMin fairness has been recognized as an optimal throughputfairness definition. However, its realization in packet switching networks and its computational requirements have not yet been understood. In this work we attempt to take a step in this direction. The MaxMin definition is given in terms ..."
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Cited by 17 (2 self)
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MaxMin fairness has been recognized as an optimal throughputfairness definition. However, its realization in packet switching networks and its computational requirements have not yet been understood. In this work we attempt to take a step in this direction. The MaxMin definition is given in terms of transmission rates of sources sending to their destinations (sessions). In order to realize MaxMin rates in a packet switching environment, transmission schedules of packets need to be realized. We first show that finding MaxMin fair schedules (with given rates) requires global state and timing information of all the nodes in the network. We then design a local scheduling algorithm for ring and bus networkswithminimum transmissiondelay, concurrent access, and spatial bandwidth reuse. This distributed algorithm uses only partial state information and is based on locally exchanging simple signals only between directly conflicting sessions (sessions which share at least one link) rather t...
Convergence Complexity of Optimistic Rate Based Flow Control Algorithms
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH ACM SYMPOSIUM ON THEORY OF COMPUTING
, 1996
"... Several issues in the design and analysis of rate based flow control algorithms are addressed in this paper. We suggest a new approach for rate based flow control algorithms which may be considered more "optimistic" than traditional approaches. Three variations of the approach are presented and thei ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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Several issues in the design and analysis of rate based flow control algorithms are addressed in this paper. We suggest a new approach for rate based flow control algorithms which may be considered more "optimistic" than traditional approaches. Three variations of the approach are presented and their rate of convergence to an optimal maxmin fairness solution is analyzed. Finally, we suggest and analyze approximate rate based flow control algorithms. We show that under certain conditions the approximate algorithms may converge faster. However, in rare configurations we show that the resulting rates may be substantially different than the rates of the maxmin vector (this difference is not necessarily bad). A byproduct of this research is an example showing that the maxmin vector is fairly unstable, namely that a change of ffi is the rate of some session may change the allocation of another session by \Omega\Gamma ffi \Delta 2 n 2 ).
MaxMin Fair Rate Control of ABR Connections with Nonzero MCRs
 Proceedings of IEEE Globecom' 97, pp 498 \Gamma 502
, 1997
"... Traffic sources that do not have intrinsic temporal characteristics are expected to be transported over ATM networks using the Available Bit Rate (ABR) service. These sources are amenable to reactive flow control and are expected to use bandwidth left over after servicing the guaranteed QoS services ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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Traffic sources that do not have intrinsic temporal characteristics are expected to be transported over ATM networks using the Available Bit Rate (ABR) service. These sources are amenable to reactive flow control and are expected to use bandwidth left over after servicing the guaranteed QoS services (CBR and VBR). Fair allocation of the available bandwidth to competing ABR connections is based on the concept of MaxMin fairness. The ABR service definition allows sources to specify a Minimum Cell Rate (MCR) that is acceptable to them. Most studies of MaxMin fair rate allocation assume zero MCRs. In this paper, we first develop a natural extension of the concept of MaxMin fair rate allocation to the case of ABR sessions with nonzero MCR values. Then we present a centralised algorithm and discuss the construction of distributed algorithms for obtaining the MaxMin allocation. We show that the MaxMin allocation can be obtained as the solution of a certain vector equation, and discuss how...
A New Approach for Asynchronous Distributed Rate Control of Elastic Sessions in Integrated Packet Networks
 IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking
"... We develop a new class of asynchronous distributed algorithms for the explicit rate control of elastic sessions in an integrated packet network. Sessions can request for minimum guaranteed rate allocations (e.g., MCRs in the ATM context), and, under this constraint, we seek to allocate the maxmin f ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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We develop a new class of asynchronous distributed algorithms for the explicit rate control of elastic sessions in an integrated packet network. Sessions can request for minimum guaranteed rate allocations (e.g., MCRs in the ATM context), and, under this constraint, we seek to allocate the maxmin fair rates to the sessions. We capture the integrated network context by permitting the link bandwidths available to elastic sessions to be stochastically time varying. The available capacity of each link is viewed as some statistic of this stochastic process (e.g., a fraction of the mean, or a large deviations Equivalent Service Capacity (ESC)). For fixed available capacity at each link, we show that the vector of maxmin fair rates can be computed from the root of a certain vector equation. A distributed asynchronous stochastic approximation technique is then used to develop a provably convergent distributed algorithm for obtaining the root of the equation, even when the link flows and the ...