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Progressive Meshes
"... Highly detailed geometric models are rapidly becoming commonplace in computer graphics. These models, often represented as complex triangle meshes, challenge rendering performance, transmission bandwidth, and storage capacities. This paper introduces the progressive mesh (PM) representation, a new s ..."
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Cited by 1315 (11 self)
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Highly detailed geometric models are rapidly becoming commonplace in computer graphics. These models, often represented as complex triangle meshes, challenge rendering performance, transmission bandwidth, and storage capacities. This paper introduces the progressive mesh (PM) representation, a new scheme for storing and transmitting arbitrary triangle meshes. This efficient, lossless, continuousresolution representation addresses several practical problems in graphics: smooth geomorphing of levelofdetail approximations, progressive transmission, mesh compression, and selective refinement. In addition, we present a new mesh simplification procedure for constructing a PM representation from an arbitrary mesh. The goal of this optimization procedure is to preserve not just the geometry of the original mesh, but more importantly its overall appearance as defined by its discrete and scalar appearance attributes such as material identifiers, color values, normals, and texture coordinates. We demonstrate construction of the PM representation and its applications using several practical models.
Progressive Simplicial Complexes
, 1997
"... In this paper, we introduce the progressive simplicial complex (PSC) representation, a new format for storing and transmitting triangulated geometric models. Like the earlier progressive mesh (PM) representation, it captures a given model as a coarse base model together with a sequence of refinement ..."
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Cited by 169 (2 self)
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In this paper, we introduce the progressive simplicial complex (PSC) representation, a new format for storing and transmitting triangulated geometric models. Like the earlier progressive mesh (PM) representation, it captures a given model as a coarse base model together with a sequence of refinement transformations that progressively recover detail. The PSC representation makes use of a more general refinement transformation, allowing the given model to be an arbitrary triangulation (e.g. any dimension, nonorientable, nonmanifold, nonregular), and the base model to always consist of a single vertex. Indeed, the sequence of refinement transformations encodes both the geometry and the topology of the model in a unified multiresolution framework. The PSC representation retains the advantages of PM's. It defines a continuous sequence of approximating models for runtime levelofdetail control, allows smooth transitions between any pair of models in the sequence, supports progressive transmission, and offers a spaceefficient representation. Moreover, by allowing changes to topology, the PSC sequence of approximations achieves better fidelity than the corresponding PM sequence.
Progressive Forest Split Compression
, 1998
"... In this paper we introduce the Progressive Forest Split (PFS) representation, a new adaptive refinement scheme for storing and transmitting manifold triangular meshes in progressive and highly compressed form. As in the Progressive Mesh (PM) method of Hoppe, a triangular mesh is represented as a low ..."
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Cited by 143 (9 self)
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In this paper we introduce the Progressive Forest Split (PFS) representation, a new adaptive refinement scheme for storing and transmitting manifold triangular meshes in progressive and highly compressed form. As in the Progressive Mesh (PM) method of Hoppe, a triangular mesh is represented as a low resolution polygonal model followed by a sequence of refinement operations, each one specifying how to add triangles and vertices to the previous level of detail to obtain a new level. The PFS format shares with PM and other refinement schemes the ability to smoothly interpolate between consecutive levels of detail. However, it achieves much higher compression ratios than PM by using a more complex refinement operation which can, at the expense of reduced granularity, be encoded more efficiently. A forest split operation doubling the number n of triangles of a mesh requires a maximum of approximately 3:5n bits to represent the connectivity changes, as opposed to approximately #5 + log 2 #n## n bits in PM. We describe
Efficient Implementation of Progressive Meshes
, 1998
"... In earlier work, we introduced the progressive mesh (PM) representation, a new format for storing and transmitting arbitrary triangle meshes. For a given mesh, the PM representation defines a continuous sequence of levelofdetail approximations, allows smooth visual transitions (geomorphs) between ..."
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Cited by 134 (1 self)
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In earlier work, we introduced the progressive mesh (PM) representation, a new format for storing and transmitting arbitrary triangle meshes. For a given mesh, the PM representation defines a continuous sequence of levelofdetail approximations, allows smooth visual transitions (geomorphs) between these approximations, supports progressive transmission, and makes an effective compression scheme. In this paper, we present data structures and algorithms for efficient implementation of the PM representation and its applications. Also, we report quantitative results using a variety of computer graphics models.
Geometry Coding and VRML
, 1998
"... The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is rapidly becoming the standard file format for transmitting 3D virtual worlds across the Internet. Static and dynamic descriptions of 3D objects, multimedia content, and a variety of hyperlinks can be represented in VRML files. Both VRML browsers and au ..."
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Cited by 63 (11 self)
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The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is rapidly becoming the standard file format for transmitting 3D virtual worlds across the Internet. Static and dynamic descriptions of 3D objects, multimedia content, and a variety of hyperlinks can be represented in VRML files. Both VRML browsers and authoring tools for the creation of VRML files are widely available for several different platforms. In this paper we describe the topologicallyassisted geometric compression technology included in our proposal for the VRML Compressed Binary Format. This technology produces significant reduction of file sizes and, subsequently, of the time required for transmission of such files across the Internet. Compression ratios of up to 50:1 or more are achieved for large models. The proposal also includes combines a binary encoding to create compact, rapidlyparsable binary VRML files. The proposal is currently being evaluated by the Compressed Binary Format Working Group of the VRML Consortium as a ...
Efficient Compression of NonManifold Polygonal Meshes
, 1999
"... We present a method for compressing nonmanifold polygonal meshes, i.e., polygonal meshes with singularities, which occur very frequently in the realworld. Most efficient polygonal compression methods currently available are restricted to a manifold mesh: they require converting a nonmanifold mesh ..."
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Cited by 40 (0 self)
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We present a method for compressing nonmanifold polygonal meshes, i.e., polygonal meshes with singularities, which occur very frequently in the realworld. Most efficient polygonal compression methods currently available are restricted to a manifold mesh: they require converting a nonmanifold mesh to a manifold mesh, and fail to retrieve the original model connectivity after decompression. The present method works by converting the original model to a manifold model, encoding the manifold model using an existing mesh compression technique, and clustering, or stitching together during the decompression process vertices that were duplicated earlier to faithfully recover the original connectivity. This paper focuses on efficiently encoding and decoding the stitching information. Using a naive method, the stitching information would incur a prohibitive cost, while our methods guarantee a worst case cost of O(logm) bits per vertex replication, where m is the number of nonmanifold vertices. Furthermore, when exploiting the adjacency between vertex replications, many replications can be encoded with an insignificant cost. By interleaving the connectivity, stitching information, geometry and properties, we can avoid encoding repeated vertices (and properties bound to vertices) multiple times; thus a reduction of the size of the bitstream of about 10% is obtained compared with encoding the model as a manifold.
Error resilient coding of 3D graphic models via adaptive mesh segmentation
 IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol
, 2001
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Progressive Encoding of Complex Isosurfaces
, 2003
"... Some of the largest and most intricate surfaces result from isosurface extraction of volume data produced by 3D imaging modalities and scientific simulations. Such surfaces often possess both complicated geometry and topology (i.e., many connected components and high genus). Because of their sheer s ..."
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Cited by 32 (3 self)
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Some of the largest and most intricate surfaces result from isosurface extraction of volume data produced by 3D imaging modalities and scientific simulations. Such surfaces often possess both complicated geometry and topology (i.e., many connected components and high genus). Because of their sheer size, efficient compression algorithms, in particular progressive encodings, are critical in working with these surfaces. Most standard mesh compression algorithms have been designed to deal with generally smooth surfaces of low topologic complexity. Much better results can be achieved with algorithms which are specifically designed for isosurfaces arising from volumetric datasets.
3D Geometry Compression and Progressive Transmission
"... Polygonal meshes remain the primary representation for visualization of 3D data in a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, architecture, geographic information systems, medical imaging, robotics, entertainment, and military applications. Because of its widespread use, it is desirable ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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Polygonal meshes remain the primary representation for visualization of 3D data in a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, architecture, geographic information systems, medical imaging, robotics, entertainment, and military applications. Because of its widespread use, it is desirable to compress polygonal meshes stored in file servers and exchanged over computer networks to reduce storage and transmission time requirements. In this report we describe several schemes that have been recently introduced to represent single and multiresolution polygonal meshes in compressed form, and to progressively transmit polygonal mesh data. The progressive transmission of polygonal meshes allows the decoder process to make part of a singleresolution mesh, or the low resolution levels of detail of a multiresolution mesh, available to the rendering system before the whole bitstream is fully received and decoded. It is desirable to combine compression and progressive transmission, but not all the existing methods exhibit both features. These progressive transmission schemes are closely related to surface simplification or decimation methods, which change the surface topology while approximating the geometry, and can be regarded as lossy compression schemes as well. Finally, we describe in more detail the Topological Surgery and Progressive Forest Split schemes that are currently part of the MPEG4 multimedia standard. 1.
Progressive coding of 3D objects based on overcomplete decomposition
 in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
, 2006
"... Abstract—This paper presents a progressive coding scheme for 3D objects, based on overcomplete signal expansions on the 2D sphere. Due to increased freedom in the basis construction, redundant expansions have shown interesting approximation properties in the decomposition of signals with multidi ..."
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Cited by 12 (6 self)
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Abstract—This paper presents a progressive coding scheme for 3D objects, based on overcomplete signal expansions on the 2D sphere. Due to increased freedom in the basis construction, redundant expansions have shown interesting approximation properties in the decomposition of signals with multidimensional singularities organized along embedded submanifolds. We propose to map simple 3D models on 2D spheres and then to decompose the signal over a redundant dictionary of oriented and anisotropic atoms living on the sphere. The signal expansion is computed iteratively with a matching pursuit algorithm, which greedily selects the most prominent components of the 3D model. The decomposition therefore inherently represents a progressive stream of atoms, which is advantageously used in the design of scalable representations. An encoder is proposed that compresses the stream of atoms by adaptive coefficient quantization and entropy coding of atom indexes. Experimental results show that the novel coding strategy outperforms stateoftheart progressive coders in terms of distortion, mostly at low bit rates. Furthermore, since the dictionary is built on structured atoms, the proposed representation simultaneously offers an increased flexibility for easy stream manipulations. We finally illustrate that advantage in the design of a viewdependent transmission scheme. Index Terms—Matching pursuit, progressive coding, scalable coding, sparse approximations, 3D model compression, 3D representation and coding. I.