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Inference of Message Sequence Charts
 Software Concepts and Tools
, 2003
"... Software designers draw Message Sequence Charts for early modeling of the individual behaviors they expect from the concurrent system under design. Can they be sure that precisely the behaviors they have described are realizable by some implementation of the components of the concurrent system? I ..."
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Cited by 186 (11 self)
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Software designers draw Message Sequence Charts for early modeling of the individual behaviors they expect from the concurrent system under design. Can they be sure that precisely the behaviors they have described are realizable by some implementation of the components of the concurrent system? If so, can we automatically synthesize concurrent state machines realizing the given MSCs? If, on the other hand, other unspecified and possibly unwanted scenarios are # A preliminary version of this paper appears in Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering, pages 304313, 2000. A journal version will appear in IEEE Transactions in Software Engineering, but due to space limitations in the journal, this is the fuller version.
Model checking of message sequence charts
, 1999
"... Scenariobased specifications such as message sequence charts (MSC) or an intuitive and visual way of describing design requirements. Such specifications focus on message exchanges among communicating entities in distributed software systems. Structured specifications such as MSCgraphs and Hierarch ..."
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Cited by 124 (6 self)
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Scenariobased specifications such as message sequence charts (MSC) or an intuitive and visual way of describing design requirements. Such specifications focus on message exchanges among communicating entities in distributed software systems. Structured specifications such as MSCgraphs and Hierarchical MSCgraphs (HMSC) allow convenient expression of multiple scenarios, and can be viewed as an early model of the system. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of the problem of verifying whether this model satisfies a temporal requirement given by an automaton, by developing algorithms for the different cases along with matching lower bounds. When the model is given as an MSC, model checking can be done by constructing a suitable automaton for the linearizations of the partial order specified by the MSC, and the problem is coNPcomplete. When the model is given by an MSCgraph, we consider two possible semantics depending on the synchronous or asynchronous interpretation of concatenating two MSCs. For synchronous model checking of MSCgraphs and HMSCs, we present algorithms whose time complexity is proportional to the product of the size of the description and the cost of processing MSCs at individual vertices. Under the asynchronous interpretation, we prove undecidability of the model checking problem. We, then, identify a natural requirement of boundedness, give algorithms to check boundedness, and establish asynchronous model checking to be Pspacecomplete for bounded MSCgraphs and Expspacecomplete for bounded HMSCs.
Model checking of hierarchical state machines
 ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst
"... Model checking is emerging as a practical tool for detecting logical errors in early stages of system design. We investigate the model checking of sequential hierarchical (nested) systems, i.e., finitestate machines whose states themselves can be other machines. This nesting ability is common in var ..."
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Cited by 78 (9 self)
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Model checking is emerging as a practical tool for detecting logical errors in early stages of system design. We investigate the model checking of sequential hierarchical (nested) systems, i.e., finitestate machines whose states themselves can be other machines. This nesting ability is common in various software design methodologies, and is available in several commercial modeling tools. The straightforward way to analyze a hierarchical machine is to flatten it (thus incurring an exponential blow up) and apply a modelchecking tool on the resulting ordinary FSM. We show that this flattening can be avoided. We develop algorithms for verifying lineartime requirements whose complexity is polynomial in the size of the hierarchical machine. We also address the verification of branching time requirements and provide efficient algorithms and matching lower bounds.
Incremental Elaboration of Scenariobased Specifications and Behavior Models using Implied Scenarios
 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology
, 2004
"... Behavior modeling has proved to be successful in helping uncover design flaws of concurrent and distributed systems. Nevertheless, it has not had a widespread impact on practitioners because model construction remains a difficult task and because the benefits of behavior analysis appear at the end o ..."
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Cited by 53 (10 self)
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Behavior modeling has proved to be successful in helping uncover design flaws of concurrent and distributed systems. Nevertheless, it has not had a widespread impact on practitioners because model construction remains a difficult task and because the benefits of behavior analysis appear at the end of the model construction effort. In contrast, scenariobased specifications have a wide acceptance in industry and are well suited for developing first approximations of intended behavior; however, they are still maturing with respect to rigorous semantics and analysis tools. This article proposes a process for elaborating system behavior that exploits the potential benefits of behavior modeling and scenariobased specifications yet ameliorates their shortcomings. The concept that drives the elaboration process is that of implied scenarios. Implied scenarios identify gaps in scenariobased specifications that arise from specifying the global behavior of a system that will be implemented componentwise. They are the result of a mismatch between the behavioral and architectural aspects of scenariobased specifications. Due to the partial nature of scenariobased specifications, implied scenarios need to be validated as desired or undesired behavior. The scenario specifications are then updated accordingly with new positive or negative scenarios. By iteratively detecting and validating implied scenarios, it is possible to incrementally elaborate the
Highlevel Message Sequence Charts
, 1997
"... syntax of HMSC A hierarchical graph is a mathematical structure that represents the information contents of an HMSC. The set HGid represents the set of all HMSC names. Obviously, this includes the names of BMSCs. Since we did not provide a formal graphical syntax for HMSC we cannot provide a forma ..."
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Cited by 49 (4 self)
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syntax of HMSC A hierarchical graph is a mathematical structure that represents the information contents of an HMSC. The set HGid represents the set of all HMSC names. Obviously, this includes the names of BMSCs. Since we did not provide a formal graphical syntax for HMSC we cannot provide a formal mapping from HMSC to hierarchical graphs. However, the intuition is clear. A node in an HMSC contains a reference to another HMSC via its name. Definition 3.3.1 (Hierarchical graphs) A hierarchical graph is either a BMSC or a tuple #id, Nodes, Starts, Ends, Edges, l#, where . id # HGid is the name of the hierarchical graph; . Nodes, Starts, and Ends are pairwise disjoint sets of HMSC reference nodes, start nodes and end nodes respectively with Starts #= ?; . Edges # (Nodes # Starts) × (Nodes # Ends) is a set of edges. An edge (n, n # ) is denoted by n # n # ; . l : Nodes # HGid is a labeling function which associates to a node a reference to an HMSC by means of a...
Test Case Generation with Test Purpose Specification by MSCs
, 1993
"... This paper presents a new test case generation method based on formal system specifications in SDL. The test purpose of a specific test case is specified formally by one or many Message Sequence Charts (MSCs). Based on the test purpose and the system specification a complete test case can be generat ..."
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Cited by 48 (23 self)
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This paper presents a new test case generation method based on formal system specifications in SDL. The test purpose of a specific test case is specified formally by one or many Message Sequence Charts (MSCs). Based on the test purpose and the system specification a complete test case can be generated automatically in the TTCN format, including preamble, postamble and test body with all test verdicts.
On message sequence graphs and finitely generated regular MSC languages
 Proc. 27th Int. Colloq. Aut. Lang. Prog., volume 1853 of Lect. Notes in Comp. Sci
, 2000
"... Abstract. Message Sequence Charts (MSCs) are an attractive visual formalism widely used to capture system requirements during the early design stages in domains such as telecommunication software. A standard method to describe multiple communication scenarios is to use message sequence graphs (MSGs) ..."
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Cited by 24 (3 self)
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Abstract. Message Sequence Charts (MSCs) are an attractive visual formalism widely used to capture system requirements during the early design stages in domains such as telecommunication software. A standard method to describe multiple communication scenarios is to use message sequence graphs (MSGs). A message sequence graph allows the protocol designer to write a finite specification which combines MSCs using basic operations such as branching choice, composition and iteration. The MSC languages described by MSGs are not necessarily regular in the sense of [HM+99]. We characterize here the class of regular MSC languages that are MSGdefinable in terms of a notion called finitely generated MSC languages. We show that a regular MSC language is MSGdefinable if and only if it is finitely generated. In fact we show that the subclass of “bounded ” MSGs defined in [AY99] exactly capture the class of finitely generated regular MSC languages. 1
Regular Collections of Message Sequence Charts (Extended Abstract)
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 25TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE(MFCS’2000), VOLUME 1893 OF LECT. NOTES IN COMP. SCI
, 2000
"... Message Sequence Charts (MSCs) are an attractive visual formalism used during the early stages of design in domains such as telecommunication software. A popular mechanism for generating a collection of MSCs is a Hierarchical Message Sequence Chart (HMSC). However, not all HMSCs describe collection ..."
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Cited by 22 (2 self)
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Message Sequence Charts (MSCs) are an attractive visual formalism used during the early stages of design in domains such as telecommunication software. A popular mechanism for generating a collection of MSCs is a Hierarchical Message Sequence Chart (HMSC). However, not all HMSCs describe collections of MSCs that can be "realized" as a finitestate device. Our main goal is to pin down this notion of realizability. We propose an independent notion of regularity for collections of MSCs and explore its basic properties. In particular, we characterize regular collections of MSCs in terms of finitestate distributed automata called bounded messagepassing automata, in which a set of sequential processes communicate with e...
Reasoning about Sequential and Branching Behaviours of Message Sequence Graphs
 In ICALP ’00, LNCS 2076
"... We study the modelchecking problem of messagesequence graphs (MSGs). In the sequential setting, we consider the set of messagesequence charts (MSCs) represented by an MSG and tackle specifications given in monadic secondorder logic. We show that this problem, without any restrictions on the MSGs ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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We study the modelchecking problem of messagesequence graphs (MSGs). In the sequential setting, we consider the set of messagesequence charts (MSCs) represented by an MSG and tackle specifications given in monadic secondorder logic. We show that this problem, without any restrictions on the MSGs, is decidable. We then turn to branching behaviours of MSGs, define a notion of an unfolding of an MSG, and show that the modelchecking problem on unfoldings is also decidable. Our results are stronger and imply that, over an appropriate universe, satisfiability and synthesis of MSCs and MSGs, respectively, are decidable.
Beyond Message Sequence Graphs
 In Proceedings of the 21st Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2001
"... We study the modelchecking problem for classes of message sequence charts (MSCs) defined by two extensions of message sequence graphs (MSGs). These classes subsume the class of regular MSC languages. ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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We study the modelchecking problem for classes of message sequence charts (MSCs) defined by two extensions of message sequence graphs (MSGs). These classes subsume the class of regular MSC languages.