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150
Special Purpose Parallel Computing
 Lectures on Parallel Computation
, 1993
"... A vast amount of work has been done in recent years on the design, analysis, implementation and verification of special purpose parallel computing systems. This paper presents a survey of various aspects of this work. A long, but by no means complete, bibliography is given. 1. Introduction Turing ..."
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Cited by 77 (5 self)
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A vast amount of work has been done in recent years on the design, analysis, implementation and verification of special purpose parallel computing systems. This paper presents a survey of various aspects of this work. A long, but by no means complete, bibliography is given. 1. Introduction Turing [365] demonstrated that, in principle, a single general purpose sequential machine could be designed which would be capable of efficiently performing any computation which could be performed by a special purpose sequential machine. The importance of this universality result for subsequent practical developments in computing cannot be overstated. It showed that, for a given computational problem, the additional efficiency advantages which could be gained by designing a special purpose sequential machine for that problem would not be great. Around 1944, von Neumann produced a proposal [66, 389] for a general purpose storedprogram sequential computer which captured the fundamental principles of...
A brief history of cellular automata
, 2000
"... Cellular automata are simple models of computation which exhibit fascinatingly complex behavior. They have captured the attention of several generations of researchers, leading to an extensive body of work. Here we trace a history of cellular automata from their beginnings with von Neumann to the pr ..."
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Cited by 61 (2 self)
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Cellular automata are simple models of computation which exhibit fascinatingly complex behavior. They have captured the attention of several generations of researchers, leading to an extensive body of work. Here we trace a history of cellular automata from their beginnings with von Neumann to the present day. The emphasis is mainly on topics closer to computer science and mathematics rather than physics, biology or other applications. The work should be of interest to both new entrants into the field as well as researchers working on particular aspects of cellular automata.
Artificial Chemistries  A Review
, 2000
"... This article reviews the growing body of scientific work in Artificial Chemistry. First, common motivations and fundamental concepts are introduced. Second, current research activities are discussed along three application dimensions: modelling, information processing and optimization. Finally, comm ..."
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Cited by 50 (4 self)
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This article reviews the growing body of scientific work in Artificial Chemistry. First, common motivations and fundamental concepts are introduced. Second, current research activities are discussed along three application dimensions: modelling, information processing and optimization. Finally, common phenomena among the different systems are summarized. It is argued here that Artificial Chemistries are "the right stuff" for the study of prebiotic and biochemical evolution, and they provide a productive framework for questions regarding the origin and evolution of organizations in general. Furthermore, Artificial Chemistries have a broad application range to practical problems as shown in this review.
Developing theory through simulation methods
 Academy of Management Review
, 2007
"... We describe when and how to use simulation methods in theory development. We develop a roadmap that describes theory development using simulation and position simulation in the “sweet spot ” between theorycreating methods, such as multiple case inductive studies and formal modeling, and theorytest ..."
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Cited by 44 (0 self)
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We describe when and how to use simulation methods in theory development. We develop a roadmap that describes theory development using simulation and position simulation in the “sweet spot ” between theorycreating methods, such as multiple case inductive studies and formal modeling, and theorytesting methods. Simulation strengths include internal validity and facility with longitudinal, nonlinear, and process phenomena. Simulation’s primary value occurs in creative experimentation to produce novel theory. We conclude with evaluation guidelines. Simulation is an increasingly significant methodological approach to theory development in the literature focused on strategy and
Computation in cellular automata: A selected review
 Nonstandard Computation
, 1996
"... Cellular automata (CAs) are decentralized spatially extended systems consisting of large numbers of simple identical components with local connectivity. Such systems have the potential to perform complex computations with a high degree of efficiency and robustness, as well as to model the behavior o ..."
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Cited by 36 (2 self)
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Cellular automata (CAs) are decentralized spatially extended systems consisting of large numbers of simple identical components with local connectivity. Such systems have the potential to perform complex computations with a high degree of efficiency and robustness, as well as to model the behavior of complex systems in nature. For these reasons CAs and related architectures have
John von Neumann and the evolutionary growth of complexity: Looking backwards, looking forwards
 Artificial Life VII
, 2000
"... In the late 1940’s John von Neumann began to work on what he intended as a comprehensive “theory of [complex] automata”. He started to develop a book length manuscript on the subject in 1952. However, he put this aside in 1953, apparently due to pressure of other work. Due to his tragically early de ..."
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Cited by 36 (6 self)
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In the late 1940’s John von Neumann began to work on what he intended as a comprehensive “theory of [complex] automata”. He started to develop a book length manuscript on the subject in 1952. However, he put this aside in 1953, apparently due to pressure of other work. Due to his tragically early death in 1957, he was never to return to it. The draft manuscript was eventually edited, and combined for publication with some related lecture transcripts, by Burks [2] in 1966. It is clear from the time and effort which von Neumann invested in it that he considered this to be a very significant and substantial piece of work. However: subsequent commentators (beginning even with Burks) have found it surprisingly difficult to articulate this substance. Indeed, it has since been suggested that von Neumann’s results in this area are either trivial, or, at the very least, could have been achieved by much simpler means. It is an
Bridging nonliving and living matter
 Artificial Life
, 2003
"... Assembling nonbiological materials (geomaterials) into a protoorganism constitutes a bridge between nonliving and living matter. In this paper we present a simple stepbystep route to assemble a protoorganism. Many pictures have been proposed to describe this transition within the origins of lif ..."
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Assembling nonbiological materials (geomaterials) into a protoorganism constitutes a bridge between nonliving and living matter. In this paper we present a simple stepbystep route to assemble a protoorganism. Many pictures have been proposed to describe this transition within the origins of life and artificial life communities and more recently alternative pictures are emerging from advances in nanoscience and biotechnology. The proposed protoorganism lends itself to both traditions and defines a new picture based on a simple idea: Given a set of required functionalities, minimize the physicochemical structures that support these functionalities, and make sure that all structures selfassemble and mutually enhance each other’s existence. The result is the first, concrete rational design of a simple physicochemical system that integrates the key functionalities in a thermodynamically favorable manner as a lipid aggregate integrates protogenes and a protometabolism. Under external pumping of free energy, the metabolic processes produce the required building blocks, and only specific gene sequences enhance the metabolic kinetics sufficiently for the whole system to survive. We propose a concrete experimental implementation of the protoorganism with a
A New SelfReproducing Cellular Automaton Capable of Construction and Computation
 in ECAL95: Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Artificial
, 1995
"... We present a new selfreproducing cellular automaton capable of construction and computation beyond selfreproduction. Our automaton makes use of some of the concepts developed by Langton for his selfreproducing automaton, but provides the added advantage of being able to perform independent constr ..."
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Cited by 34 (8 self)
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We present a new selfreproducing cellular automaton capable of construction and computation beyond selfreproduction. Our automaton makes use of some of the concepts developed by Langton for his selfreproducing automaton, but provides the added advantage of being able to perform independent constructional and computational tasks alongside selfreproduction. Our automaton is capable, like Langton's automaton and with comparable complexity, of simple selfreplication, but it also provides (at the cost, naturally, of increased complexity) the option of attaching to the automaton an executable program which will be duplicated and executed in each of the copies of the automaton. After describing in some detail the selfreproduction mechanism of our automaton, we provide a nontrivial example of its constructional capabilities. 1 Introduction The history of selfreproducing cellular automata basically begins with John von Neumann's research in the field of complex selfreproducing machi...
A Survey on Cellular Automata
, 2003
"... A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. Researchers, scientists and practitioners from different fields have exploited the CA paradigm of local information, decentralized contr ..."
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Cited by 32 (0 self)
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A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. Researchers, scientists and practitioners from different fields have exploited the CA paradigm of local information, decentralized control and universal computation for modeling different applications. This article provides a survey of available literature of some of the methodologies employed by researchers to utilize cellular automata for modeling purposes. The survey introduces the different types of cellular automata being used for modeling and the analytical methods used to predict its global behavior from its local configurations. It further gives a detailed sketch of the efforts undertaken to configure the local settings of CA from a given global situation; the problem which has been traditionally termed as the inverse problem. Finally, it presents the different fields in which CA have been applied. The extensive bibliography provided with the article will be of help to the new entrant as well as researchers working in this field.
An Implementation of von Neumann's SelfReproducing Machine
 Artificial Life
, 1996
"... This article describes in detail an implementation of John von Neumann's selfreproducing machine. Selfreproduction is achieved as a special case of construction by a universal constructor. The theoretical proof of the existence of such machines was given by John von Neumann in the early ..."
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Cited by 31 (0 self)
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This article describes in detail an implementation of John von Neumann's selfreproducing machine. Selfreproduction is achieved as a special case of construction by a universal constructor. The theoretical proof of the existence of such machines was given by John von Neumann in the early 1950s [6], but was first implemented in 1994, by the author in collaboration with R. Nobili. Our implementation relies on an extension of the statetransition rule of von Neumann's original cellular automaton. This extension was introduced to simplify the design of the constructor. The main operations in our constructor can be mapped into operations of von Neumann's machine. 1 Introduction Von Neumann [6] introduced constructive universality in cellular automata to study the implementability of selfreproducing machines and to extend the concept of computational universality, introduced by A. Turing [5]. A computing machine is said to be computationally universal if it is capable of simu...