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22
Parallelizing the Murφ verifier
 Computer Aided Verification. 9th International Conference
, 1997
"... With the use of state and memory reduction techniques in verification by explicit state enumeration, runtime becomes a major limiting factor. We describe a parallel version of the explicit state enumeration verifier Murφ for distributed memory multiprocessors and networks of workstations that is ba ..."
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Cited by 55 (0 self)
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With the use of state and memory reduction techniques in verification by explicit state enumeration, runtime becomes a major limiting factor. We describe a parallel version of the explicit state enumeration verifier Murφ for distributed memory multiprocessors and networks of workstations that is based on the message passing paradigm. In experiments with three complex cache coherence protocols, parallel Murφ shows close to linear speedups, which are largely insensitive to communication latency and bandwidth. There is some slowdown with increasing communication overhead, for which a simple yet relatively accurate approximation formula is given. Techniques to reduce overhead and required bandwidth and to allow heterogeneity and dynamically changing load in the parallel machine are discussed, which we expect will allow good speedups when using conventional networks of workstations.
Formal Hardware Verification with BDDs: An Introduction
"... This paper is a brief introduction to the main paradigms for using BDDs in formal hardware verification. The paper addresses two audiences: for people doing theoretical BDD research, the paper gives a glimpse of the problems in the main application area, and ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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This paper is a brief introduction to the main paradigms for using BDDs in formal hardware verification. The paper addresses two audiences: for people doing theoretical BDD research, the paper gives a glimpse of the problems in the main application area, and
Achieving speedups in distributed symbolic reachability analysis through asynchronous computation
 In CHARME
, 2005
"... Abstract. This paper presents a novel BDDbased distributed algorithm for reachability analysis which is completely asynchronous. Previous BDDbased distributed schemes are synchronous: they consist of interleaved rounds of computation and communication, in which the fastest machine (or one which is ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a novel BDDbased distributed algorithm for reachability analysis which is completely asynchronous. Previous BDDbased distributed schemes are synchronous: they consist of interleaved rounds of computation and communication, in which the fastest machine (or one which is lightly loaded) must wait for the slowest one at the end of each round. We make two major contributions. First, the algorithm performs image computation and message transfer concurrently, employing nonblocking protocols in several layers of the communication and the computation infrastructures. As a result, regardless of the scale and type of the underlying platform, the maximal amount of resources can be utilized efficiently. Second, the algorithm incorporates an adaptive mechanism which splits the workload, taking into account the availability of free computational power. In this way, the computation can progress more quickly because, when more CPUs are available to join the computation, less work is assigned to each of them. Less load implies additional important benefits, such as better locality of reference, less overhead in compaction activities (such as reorder), and faster and better workload splitting. We implemented the new approach by extending a symbolic model checker from Intel. The effectiveness of the resulting scheme is demonstrated on a number of large industrial designs as well as public benchmark circuits, all known to be hard for reachability analysis. Our results show that the asynchronous algorithm enables efficient utilization of higher levels of parallelism. High speedups are reported, up to an order of magnitude, for computing reachability for models with higher memory requirements than was previously possible. 1
Local Parallel Model Checking for the AlternationFree µCalculus
 In Proceedings of the 9th International SPIN Workshop on Model checking of Software (SPIN
, 2002
"... We describe the design of (several variants of) a local parallel modelchecking algorithm for the alternationfree fragment of the µcalculus. It exploits a characterisation of the problem for this fragment in terms of twoplayer games. For the corresponding winner, our algorithm determines in paral ..."
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Cited by 20 (6 self)
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We describe the design of (several variants of) a local parallel modelchecking algorithm for the alternationfree fragment of the µcalculus. It exploits a characterisation of the problem for this fragment in terms of twoplayer games. For the corresponding winner, our algorithm determines in parallel a winning strategy, which may be employed for debugging the underlying system interactively, and is designed to run on a network of workstations. Depending on the variant, its complexity is linear or quadratic. A prototype implementation within the verification tool Truth shows promising results in practice.
Parallel BreadthFirst BDD Construction
 In Ninth ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming
, 1997
"... With the increasing complexity of protocol and circuit designs, formal verification has become an important research area and binary decision diagrams (BDDs) have been shown to be a powerful tool in formal verification. This paper presents a parallel algorithm for BDD construction targeted at shared ..."
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Cited by 14 (2 self)
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With the increasing complexity of protocol and circuit designs, formal verification has become an important research area and binary decision diagrams (BDDs) have been shown to be a powerful tool in formal verification. This paper presents a parallel algorithm for BDD construction targeted at shared memory multiprocessors and distributed shared memory systems. This algorithm focuses on improving memory access locality through specialized memory managers and partial breadthfirst expansion, and on improving processor utilization through dynamic load balancing. The results on a shared memory system show speedups of over two on four processors and speedups of up to four on eight processors. The measured results clearly identify the main source of bottlenecks and point out some interesting directions for further improvements. 1 Introduction With the increasing complexity of protocol and circuit designs, formal verification has become an important research area. As an example, in 1994, In...
Algorithmic Techniques in Verification by Explicit State Enumeration
, 1997
"... Modern digital systems often employ sophisticated protocols. Unfortunately, designing correct protocols is a subtle art. Even when using great care, a designer typically cannot foresee all possible interactions among the components of the system; thus, bugs like subtle race conditions or deadlocks a ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Modern digital systems often employ sophisticated protocols. Unfortunately, designing correct protocols is a subtle art. Even when using great care, a designer typically cannot foresee all possible interactions among the components of the system; thus, bugs like subtle race conditions or deadlocks are easily overlooked. One way a computer can support the designer is by simulating random executions of the system. There is, however, a high probability of missing executions containing errors  especially in complex systems  using this simulation approach. In contrast, an automatic verifier tries to examine all states reachable from a given set of startstates. The biggest obstacle in this exhaustive approach is that often there is a very large number of reachable states. This thesis describes three techniques to increase the size of the reachable state spaces that can be handled in automatic verifiers. The techniques work in verifiers that are based on explicitly storing each reachable ...
A Scalable Parallel Algorithm for Reachability Analysis of Very Large Circuits
 In Formal Methods in System Design
, 2002
"... Abstract This paper presents a scalable method for parallelizing symbolic reachability analysis on a distributedmemory environment of workstations. We have developed an adaptive partitioning algorithm that significantly reduces space requirements. The memory balance is maintained by dynamically rep ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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Abstract This paper presents a scalable method for parallelizing symbolic reachability analysis on a distributedmemory environment of workstations. We have developed an adaptive partitioning algorithm that significantly reduces space requirements. The memory balance is maintained by dynamically repartitioning the state space throughout the computation. A compact BDD representation allows coordination by shipping BDDs from one machine to another. This representation allows for different variable orders in the sending and receiving processes. The algorithm uses a distributed termination protocol, with none of the memory modules preserving a complete image of the set of reachable states. No external storage is used on the disk. Rather, we make use of the network, which is much faster. We implemented our method on a standard, looselyconnected environment of workstations, using a highperformance model checker. Initial performance evaluation of several large circuits shows that our method can handle models too large to fit in the memory of a single node. The partitioning algorithm achieves reduction in space, which is linear in the number of workstations employed. A corresponding decrease in space requirements is measured throughout the reachability analysis. Our results show that the relatively slow network does not become a bottleneck, and that computation time is kept reasonably small.
A pattern recognition approach for speculative firing prediction in distributed saturation statespace generation
 Proc. PDMC, pp.65– 79
, 2005
"... The saturation strategy for symbolic statespace generation is particularly effective for globallyasynchronous locallysynchronous systems. A distributed version of saturation, SaturationNOW, uses the overall memory available on a network of workstations to effectively spread the memory load, but i ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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The saturation strategy for symbolic statespace generation is particularly effective for globallyasynchronous locallysynchronous systems. A distributed version of saturation, SaturationNOW, uses the overall memory available on a network of workstations to effectively spread the memory load, but its execution is essentially sequential. To achieve true parallelism, we explore a speculative firing prediction, where idle workstations work on predicted future event firing requests. A naïve approach where all possible firings may be explored a priori, given enough idle time, can result in excessive memory requirements. Thus, we introduce a historybased approach for firing prediction that recognizes firing patterns and explores only firings conforming to these patterns. Experiments show that our heuristic improves the runtime and has a small memory overhead.
Formal Methods for the Verification of Digital Circuits
, 1997
"... ion Techniques 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Introduction 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Related work 97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Approximate reachability analysis 98 . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 De ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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ion Techniques 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Introduction 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Related work 97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Approximate reachability analysis 98 . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Decomposition without abstraction 100 . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Constructing an abstract model 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6 A decompositionbased verification method 109 . . . . 6.7 Disproving equivalence in an abstract model 114 . . 6.8 Experimental results 119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.9 Discussion 122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Concluding Remarks 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Research goal and results 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Suggestions for future work 128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References 131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Multithreaded reachability
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 42ND CONFERENCE ON DESIGN AUTOMATION
, 2005
"... Partitioned BDDbased algorithms have been proposed in the literature to solve the memory explosion problem in BDDbased verification. Such algorithms can be at times ineffective as they suffer from the problem of scheduling the relative order in which the partitions are processed. In this paper we ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Partitioned BDDbased algorithms have been proposed in the literature to solve the memory explosion problem in BDDbased verification. Such algorithms can be at times ineffective as they suffer from the problem of scheduling the relative order in which the partitions are processed. In this paper we present a novel multithreaded reachability algorithm that avoids this scheduling problem while increasing the latent parallelism in partitioned state space traversal. We show that in most cases our method is significantly faster than both the standard reachability algorithm as well as the existing partitioned approaches. The gains are further magnified when our threaded implementation is evaluated in the context of a parallel framework.