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Graphs over Time: Densification Laws, Shrinking Diameters and Possible Explanations
, 2005
"... How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include hea ..."
Abstract

Cited by 301 (39 self)
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How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include heavy tails for in and outdegree distributions, communities, smallworld phenomena, and others. However, given the lack of information about network evolution over long periods, it has been hard to convert these findings into statements about trends over time. Here we study a wide range of real graphs, and we observe some surprising phenomena. First, most of these graphs densify over time, with the number of edges growing superlinearly in the number of nodes. Second, the average distance between nodes often shrinks over time, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that such distance parameters should increase slowly as a function of the number of nodes (like O(log n) orO(log(log n)). Existing graph generation models do not exhibit these types of behavior, even at a qualitative level. We provide a new graph generator, based on a “forest fire” spreading process, that has a simple, intuitive justification, requires very few parameters (like the “flammability” of nodes), and produces graphs exhibiting the full range of properties observed both in prior work and in the present study.
Graph evolution: Densification and shrinking diameters
 ACM TKDD
, 2007
"... How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include hea ..."
Abstract

Cited by 120 (13 self)
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How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include heavy tails for in and outdegree distributions, communities, smallworld phenomena, and others. However, given the lack of information about network evolution over long periods, it has been hard to convert these findings into statements about trends over time. Here we study a wide range of real graphs, and we observe some surprising phenomena. First, most of these graphs densify over time, with the number of edges growing superlinearly in the number of nodes. Second, the average distance between nodes often shrinks over time, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that such distance parameters should increase slowly as a function of the number of nodes (like O(log n) or O(log(log n)). Existing graph generation models do not exhibit these types of behavior, even at a qualitative level. We provide a new graph generator, based on a “forest fire” spreading process, that has a simple, intuitive justification, requires very few parameters (like the “flammability ” of nodes), and produces graphs exhibiting the full range of properties observed both in prior work and in the present study. We also notice that the “forest fire” model exhibits a sharp transition between sparse graphs and graphs that are densifying. Graphs with decreasing distance between the nodes are generated around this transition point. Last, we analyze the connection between the temporal evolution of the degree distribution and densification of a graph. We find that the two are fundamentally related. We also observe that real networks exhibit this type of r
Scale Independent Bibliometric Indicators
 Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives
, 2005
"... Van Raan (this issue) makes an excellent case for using bibliometric data to measure some central aspects of scientific research and to construct indicators of groups: research groups, university departments, and institutes. He claims that, next to peer review, these indicators are indispensable for ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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Van Raan (this issue) makes an excellent case for using bibliometric data to measure some central aspects of scientific research and to construct indicators of groups: research groups, university departments, and institutes. He claims that, next to peer review, these indicators are indispensable for evaluating research and can be used in parallel with peer review processes. By way of an example, van Raan provides a table containing nine indicators for a German medical research institute. Two of these indicators—articles (P) and citations (C)—are established proxy measures for the size of a group and the impact of its published research (Katz & Hicks, 1997). The ratio between citations and articles (CPP) and the ratios between CPP and the mean Journal Citation Score and between the fieldbased world average and the Germanyspecific world average—which are uniquely defined CPP reference values—are used to construct a set of indicators that van Raan suggests can be used to assess international research performance. This commentary focuses solely on the use of bibliometric indicators to compare international research performance. It addresses the fundamental question of whether CPP or measures like CPP can be used to accurately compare the performance of groups of different sizes. SCALING RELATIONS A scaling relation exists between two entities, x and y, if they are correlated by a power law given by the equation y = kx n, where n is the scaling factor and k is a constant. There is evidence to suggest that C and P have a scaling relation when
Classification and Powerlaws: The logarithmic transformation
 Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology
, 2006
"... (forthcoming) Logarithmic transformation of the data has been recommended by the literature in the case of highly skewed distributions such as those commonly found in information science. The purpose of the transformation is to make the data conform to the lognormal law of error for inferential purp ..."
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Cited by 9 (6 self)
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(forthcoming) Logarithmic transformation of the data has been recommended by the literature in the case of highly skewed distributions such as those commonly found in information science. The purpose of the transformation is to make the data conform to the lognormal law of error for inferential purposes. How does this transformation affect the analysis? We factor analyze and visualize the citation environment of the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS) before and after a logarithmic transformation. The transformation strongly reduces the variance necessary for classificatory purposes and therefore is counterproductive to the purposes of the descriptive statistics. We recommend against the logarithmic transformation when sets cannot be defined unambiguously. The intellectual organization of the sciences is reflected in the curvilinear parts of the citation distributions, while negative powerlaws fit excellently to the tails of the distributions.
through Citation Mining
"... Abstract — Recently the use of data mining to scientific bibliographic data bases has been implemented to analyze the pathways of the knowledge or the core scientific relevances of a laureated novel or a country. This specific case of data mining has been named citation mining, and it is the integra ..."
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Abstract — Recently the use of data mining to scientific bibliographic data bases has been implemented to analyze the pathways of the knowledge or the core scientific relevances of a laureated novel or a country. This specific case of data mining has been named citation mining, and it is the integration of citation bibliometrics and text mining. In this paper we present an improved WEB implementation of statistical physics algorithms to perform the text mining component of citation mining. In particular we use an entropic like distance between the compression of text as an indicator of the similarity between them. Finally, we have included the recently proposed index h to characterize the scientific production. We have used this web implementation to identify users, applications and impact of the Mexican scientific institutions located in the State of Morelos.
BOOK: Models of science dynamics
, 1201
"... encounters between complexity theory and information sciences CHAPTER 3 Knowledge epidemics and population dynamics models for describing idea diffusion ..."
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encounters between complexity theory and information sciences CHAPTER 3 Knowledge epidemics and population dynamics models for describing idea diffusion
Research Track Paper Graphs over Time: Densification Laws, Shrinking Diameters and Possible Explanations
"... How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include hea ..."
Abstract
 Add to MetaCart
How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include heavy tails for in and outdegree distributions, communities, smallworld phenomena, and others. However, given the lack of information about network evolution over long periods, it has been hard to convert these findings into statements about trends over time. Here we study a wide range of real graphs, and we observe some surprising phenomena. First, most of these graphs densify over time, with the number of edges growing superlinearly in the number of nodes. Second, the average distance between nodes often shrinks over time, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that such distance parameters should increase slowly as a function of the number of nodes (like O(log n) orO(log(log n)). Existing graph generation models do not exhibit these types of behavior, even at a qualitative level. We provide a new graph generator, based on a “forest fire ” spreading process, that has a simple, intuitive justification, requires very few parameters (like the “flammability ” of nodes), and produces graphs exhibiting the full range of properties observed both in prior work and in the present study.