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219
Chain Graphs for Learning
 In Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... Chain graphs combine directed and undirected graphs and their underlying mathematics combines properties of the two. This paper gives a simplified definition of chain graphs based on a hierarchical combination of Bayesian (directed) and Markov (undirected) networks. Examples of a chain graph are mul ..."
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Cited by 37 (1 self)
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Chain graphs combine directed and undirected graphs and their underlying mathematics combines properties of the two. This paper gives a simplified definition of chain graphs based on a hierarchical combination of Bayesian (directed) and Markov (undirected) networks. Examples of a chain graph are multivariate feedforward networks, clustering with conditional interaction between variables, and forms of Bayes classifiers. Chain graphs are then extended using the notation of plates so that samples and data analysis problems can be represented in a graphical model as well. Implications for learning are discussed in the conclusion. 1 Introduction Probabilistic networks are a notational device that allow one to abstract forms of probabilistic reasoning without getting lost in the mathematical detail of the underlying equations. They offer a framework whereby many forms of probabilistic reasoning can be combined and performed on probabilistic models without careful hand programming. Efforts ...
Discrete chain graph models
 Bernoulli
, 2009
"... The statistical literature discusses different types of Markov properties for chain graphs that lead to four possible classes of chain graph Markov models. The different models are rather well understood when the observations are continuous and multivariate normal, and it is also known that one mode ..."
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Cited by 37 (2 self)
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The statistical literature discusses different types of Markov properties for chain graphs that lead to four possible classes of chain graph Markov models. The different models are rather well understood when the observations are continuous and multivariate normal, and it is also known that one model class, referred to as models of LWF (Lauritzen–Wermuth–Frydenberg) or block concentration type, yields discrete models for categorical data that are smooth. This paper considers the structural properties of the discrete models based on the three alternative Markov properties. It is shown by example that two of the alternative Markov properties can lead to nonsmooth models. The remaining model class, which can be viewed as a discrete version of multivariate regressions, is proven to comprise only smooth models. The proof employs a simple change of coordinates that also reveals that the model’s likelihood function is unimodal if the chain components of the graph are complete sets.
A SINful approach to Gaussian graphical model selection
 Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference
"... Abstract. Multivariate Gaussian graphical models are defined in terms of Markov properties, i.e., conditional independences associated with the underlying graph. Thus, model selection can be performed by testing these conditional independences, which are equivalent to specified zeroes among certain ..."
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Cited by 36 (5 self)
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Abstract. Multivariate Gaussian graphical models are defined in terms of Markov properties, i.e., conditional independences associated with the underlying graph. Thus, model selection can be performed by testing these conditional independences, which are equivalent to specified zeroes among certain (partial) correlation coefficients. For concentration graphs, covariance graphs, acyclic directed graphs, and chain graphs (both LWF and AMP), we apply Fisher’s ztransformation, ˇ Sidák’s correlation inequality, and Holm’s stepdown procedure, to simultaneously test the multiple hypotheses obtained from the Markov properties. This leads to a simple method for model selection that controls the overall error rate for incorrect edge inclusion. In practice, we advocate partitioning the simultaneous pvalues into three disjoint sets, a significant set S, an indeterminate set I, and a nonsignificant set N. Then our SIN model selection method selects two graphs, a graph whose edges correspond to the union of S and I, and a more conservative graph whose edges correspond to S only. Prior information about the presence and/or absence of particular edges can be incorporated readily. 1.
Bayesian Network Classification with Continuous Attributes: Getting the Best of Both Discretization and Parametric Fitting
 In Proceedings of the International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML
, 1998
"... In a recent paper, Friedman, Geiger, and Goldszmidt [8] introduced a classifier based on Bayesian networks, called Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (TAN), that outperforms naive Bayes and performs competitively with C4.5 and other stateoftheart methods. This classifier has several advantages including ..."
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Cited by 34 (2 self)
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In a recent paper, Friedman, Geiger, and Goldszmidt [8] introduced a classifier based on Bayesian networks, called Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (TAN), that outperforms naive Bayes and performs competitively with C4.5 and other stateoftheart methods. This classifier has several advantages including robustness and polynomial computational complexity. One limitation of the TAN classifier is that it applies only to discrete attributes, and thus, continuous attributes must be prediscretized. In this paper, we extend TAN to deal with continuous attributes directly via parametric (e.g., Gaussians) and semiparametric (e.g., mixture of Gaussians) conditional probabilities. The result is a classifier that can represent and combine both discrete and continuous attributes. In addition, we propose a new method that takes advantage of the modeling language of Bayesian networks in order to represent attributes both in discrete and continuous form simultaneously, and use both versions in the classifi...
Multiple testing and error control in Gaussian graphical model selection
 Statistical Science
"... Abstract. Graphical models provide a framework for exploration of multivariate dependence patterns. The connection between graph and statistical model is made by identifying the vertices of the graph with the observed variables and translating the pattern of edges in the graph into a pattern of cond ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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Abstract. Graphical models provide a framework for exploration of multivariate dependence patterns. The connection between graph and statistical model is made by identifying the vertices of the graph with the observed variables and translating the pattern of edges in the graph into a pattern of conditional independences that is imposed on the variables ’ joint distribution. Focusing on Gaussian models, we review classical graphical models. For these models the defining conditional independences are equivalent to vanishing of certain (partial) correlation coefficients associated with individual edges that are absent from the graph. Hence, Gaussian graphical model selection can be performed by multiple testing of hypotheses about vanishing (partial) correlation coefficients. We show and exemplify how this approach allows one to perform model selection while controlling error rates for incorrect edge inclusion. Key words and phrases: Acyclic directed graph, Bayesian network, bidirected graph, chain graph, concentration graph, covariance graph, DAG, graphical model, multiple testing, undirected graph. 1.
Probabilistic Arithmetic
, 1989
"... This thesis develops the idea of probabilistic arithmetic. The aim is to replace arithmetic operations on numbers with arithmetic operations on random variables. Specifically, we are interested in numerical methods of calculating convolutions of probability distributions. The longterm goal is to ..."
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Cited by 27 (0 self)
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This thesis develops the idea of probabilistic arithmetic. The aim is to replace arithmetic operations on numbers with arithmetic operations on random variables. Specifically, we are interested in numerical methods of calculating convolutions of probability distributions. The longterm goal is to be able to handle random problems (such as the determination of the distribution of the roots of random algebraic equations) using algorithms which have been developed for the deterministic case. To this end, in this thesis we survey a number of previously proposed methods for calculating convolutions and representing probability distributions and examine their defects. We develop some new results for some of these methods (the Laguerre transform and the histogram method), but ultimately find them unsuitable. We find that the details on how the ordinary convolution equations are calculated are
Automated Rhythm Transcription
 In Proc. Int. Symposium on Music Inform. Retriev. (ISMIR
, 2001
"... We present a technique that, given a sequence of musical note onset times, performs simultaneous identification of the norated rhythm and the variable tempo associated with the times. Our formulation is probabilistic: We develop a stochastic model for the interconnected evolution of a rhythm process ..."
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We present a technique that, given a sequence of musical note onset times, performs simultaneous identification of the norated rhythm and the variable tempo associated with the times. Our formulation is probabilistic: We develop a stochastic model for the interconnected evolution of a rhythm process, a tempo process, and an observable process. This model allows the globally optimal identification of the most likely rhythm and tempo sequence, given the observed onset times. We demonstrate applications to a sequence of times derived from a sampled audio file and to MIDI data.
On Chain Graph Models For Description Of Conditional Independence Structures
 Ann. Statist
, 1998
"... This paper deals with chain graphs (CGs) which allow both directed and undirected edges. This class of graphs, introduced by Lauritzen and Wermuth [15], generalizes both UGs and DAGs. To establish the semantics of CGs one should associate an independency model to every CG. Some steps were already ma ..."
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Cited by 25 (3 self)
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This paper deals with chain graphs (CGs) which allow both directed and undirected edges. This class of graphs, introduced by Lauritzen and Wermuth [15], generalizes both UGs and DAGs. To establish the semantics of CGs one should associate an independency model to every CG. Some steps were already made. Lauritzen and Wermuth [16] intended to use CGs to describe independency models for strictly positive probability distributions and introduced the concept of the chain Markov property which is analogous to the concept of causal input list for DAGs. Lauritzen and Frydenberg [17, 9] generalized the concept of moral graph and introduced a moralization criterion for reading independency statements from a CG. Frydenberg [9] characterized CGs with the same Markov ON CHAIN GRAPH MODELS 3 property (that is producing the same CGmodel) and Andersson, Madigan and Perlman [3] used special CGs to represent uniquely classes of Markov equivalent DAGs. Whittaker [31] in his book gave several examples of the use of CGs, and other recent works also deal with them [6, 20, 23, 30], the most comprehensive account is provided by the book [19]. Several results proved here were already presented (without proof) in our previous conference contribution [5]. An alternative approach to the generalization of UGs and DAGs was started by Cox and Wermuth [7] who introduced a wider class of jointresponse chain graphs which allow also 'dashed' directed and undirected edges in addition to the classic 'solid' directed and undirected edges treated in this paper. Andersson, Madigan and Perlman [1] introduced an alternative Markov property to give an interpretation to those jointresponse CGs which combine dashed directed edges with solid undirected edges (of course, another independency model is associated...
Graphical Models in a Nutshell
, 2007
"... Probabilistic graphical models are an elegant framework which combines uncertainty (probabilities) and logical structure (independence constraints) to compactly represent complex, realworld phenomena. The framework is quite general in that many of the commonly proposed statistical models (Kalman fi ..."
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Cited by 25 (0 self)
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Probabilistic graphical models are an elegant framework which combines uncertainty (probabilities) and logical structure (independence constraints) to compactly represent complex, realworld phenomena. The framework is quite general in that many of the commonly proposed statistical models (Kalman filters, hidden Markov models, Ising models) can be described as graphical models. Graphical models have enjoyed a surge of interest in the last two decades, due both to the flexibility and power of the representation and to the increased ability to effectively learn and perform inference in large networks.
A Hybrid Graphical Model for Rhythmic Parsing
 In Proc. of 17th Conf. on Uncertainty in Artif. Int
, 2001
"... A method is presented for the rhythmic parsing problem: Given a sequence of observed musical note onset times, we simultaneously estimate the corresponding norated rhythm and tempo process. A graphical model is developed that represents the evolution of tempo and rhythm and relates these hidden q ..."
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Cited by 24 (3 self)
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A method is presented for the rhythmic parsing problem: Given a sequence of observed musical note onset times, we simultaneously estimate the corresponding norated rhythm and tempo process. A graphical model is developed that represents the evolution of tempo and rhythm and relates these hidden quantities to an observable performance. The rhythm variables are discrete and the tempo and observation variables are continuous. We show how to compute the globally most likely configuration of the tempo and rhythm variables given an observation of note onset times. Experiments are presented on both MIDI data and a data set derived from an audio signal. A generalization to computing MAP estimates for arbitrary conditional Gaussian distributions is outlined.