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134
Chain Graphs for Learning
 In Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... Chain graphs combine directed and undirected graphs and their underlying mathematics combines properties of the two. This paper gives a simplified definition of chain graphs based on a hierarchical combination of Bayesian (directed) and Markov (undirected) networks. Examples of a chain graph are mul ..."
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Cited by 27 (1 self)
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Chain graphs combine directed and undirected graphs and their underlying mathematics combines properties of the two. This paper gives a simplified definition of chain graphs based on a hierarchical combination of Bayesian (directed) and Markov (undirected) networks. Examples of a chain graph are multivariate feedforward networks, clustering with conditional interaction between variables, and forms of Bayes classifiers. Chain graphs are then extended using the notation of plates so that samples and data analysis problems can be represented in a graphical model as well. Implications for learning are discussed in the conclusion. 1 Introduction Probabilistic networks are a notational device that allow one to abstract forms of probabilistic reasoning without getting lost in the mathematical detail of the underlying equations. They offer a framework whereby many forms of probabilistic reasoning can be combined and performed on probabilistic models without careful hand programming. Efforts ...
Inference and Learning in Hybrid Bayesian Networks
, 1998
"... We survey the literature on methods for inference and learning in Bayesian Networks composed of discrete and continuous nodes, in which the continuous nodes have a multivariate Gaussian distribution, whose mean and variance depends on the values of the discrete nodes. We also briefly consider hybrid ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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We survey the literature on methods for inference and learning in Bayesian Networks composed of discrete and continuous nodes, in which the continuous nodes have a multivariate Gaussian distribution, whose mean and variance depends on the values of the discrete nodes. We also briefly consider hybrid Dynamic Bayesian Networks, an extension of switching Kalman filters. This report is meant to summarize what is known at a sufficient level of detail to enable someone to implement the algorithms, but without dwelling on formalities.
A SINful approach to Gaussian graphical model selection
 Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference
"... Abstract. Multivariate Gaussian graphical models are defined in terms of Markov properties, i.e., conditional independences associated with the underlying graph. Thus, model selection can be performed by testing these conditional independences, which are equivalent to specified zeroes among certain ..."
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Cited by 25 (5 self)
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Abstract. Multivariate Gaussian graphical models are defined in terms of Markov properties, i.e., conditional independences associated with the underlying graph. Thus, model selection can be performed by testing these conditional independences, which are equivalent to specified zeroes among certain (partial) correlation coefficients. For concentration graphs, covariance graphs, acyclic directed graphs, and chain graphs (both LWF and AMP), we apply Fisher’s ztransformation, ˇ Sidák’s correlation inequality, and Holm’s stepdown procedure, to simultaneously test the multiple hypotheses obtained from the Markov properties. This leads to a simple method for model selection that controls the overall error rate for incorrect edge inclusion. In practice, we advocate partitioning the simultaneous pvalues into three disjoint sets, a significant set S, an indeterminate set I, and a nonsignificant set N. Then our SIN model selection method selects two graphs, a graph whose edges correspond to the union of S and I, and a more conservative graph whose edges correspond to S only. Prior information about the presence and/or absence of particular edges can be incorporated readily. 1.
Automated Rhythm Transcription
 In Proc. Int. Symposium on Music Inform. Retriev. (ISMIR
, 2001
"... We present a technique that, given a sequence of musical note onset times, performs simultaneous identification of the norated rhythm and the variable tempo associated with the times. Our formulation is probabilistic: We develop a stochastic model for the interconnected evolution of a rhythm process ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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We present a technique that, given a sequence of musical note onset times, performs simultaneous identification of the norated rhythm and the variable tempo associated with the times. Our formulation is probabilistic: We develop a stochastic model for the interconnected evolution of a rhythm process, a tempo process, and an observable process. This model allows the globally optimal identification of the most likely rhythm and tempo sequence, given the observed onset times. We demonstrate applications to a sequence of times derived from a sampled audio file and to MIDI data.
A Hybrid Graphical Model for Rhythmic Parsing
 In Proc. of 17th Conf. on Uncertainty in Artif. Int
, 2001
"... A method is presented for the rhythmic parsing problem: Given a sequence of observed musical note onset times, we simultaneously estimate the corresponding norated rhythm and tempo process. A graphical model is developed that represents the evolution of tempo and rhythm and relates these hidden q ..."
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Cited by 23 (3 self)
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A method is presented for the rhythmic parsing problem: Given a sequence of observed musical note onset times, we simultaneously estimate the corresponding norated rhythm and tempo process. A graphical model is developed that represents the evolution of tempo and rhythm and relates these hidden quantities to an observable performance. The rhythm variables are discrete and the tempo and observation variables are continuous. We show how to compute the globally most likely configuration of the tempo and rhythm variables given an observation of note onset times. Experiments are presented on both MIDI data and a data set derived from an audio signal. A generalization to computing MAP estimates for arbitrary conditional Gaussian distributions is outlined.
On Chain Graph Models For Description Of Conditional Independence Structures
 Ann. Statist
, 1998
"... This paper deals with chain graphs (CGs) which allow both directed and undirected edges. This class of graphs, introduced by Lauritzen and Wermuth [15], generalizes both UGs and DAGs. To establish the semantics of CGs one should associate an independency model to every CG. Some steps were already ma ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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This paper deals with chain graphs (CGs) which allow both directed and undirected edges. This class of graphs, introduced by Lauritzen and Wermuth [15], generalizes both UGs and DAGs. To establish the semantics of CGs one should associate an independency model to every CG. Some steps were already made. Lauritzen and Wermuth [16] intended to use CGs to describe independency models for strictly positive probability distributions and introduced the concept of the chain Markov property which is analogous to the concept of causal input list for DAGs. Lauritzen and Frydenberg [17, 9] generalized the concept of moral graph and introduced a moralization criterion for reading independency statements from a CG. Frydenberg [9] characterized CGs with the same Markov ON CHAIN GRAPH MODELS 3 property (that is producing the same CGmodel) and Andersson, Madigan and Perlman [3] used special CGs to represent uniquely classes of Markov equivalent DAGs. Whittaker [31] in his book gave several examples of the use of CGs, and other recent works also deal with them [6, 20, 23, 30], the most comprehensive account is provided by the book [19]. Several results proved here were already presented (without proof) in our previous conference contribution [5]. An alternative approach to the generalization of UGs and DAGs was started by Cox and Wermuth [7] who introduced a wider class of jointresponse chain graphs which allow also 'dashed' directed and undirected edges in addition to the classic 'solid' directed and undirected edges treated in this paper. Andersson, Madigan and Perlman [1] introduced an alternative Markov property to give an interpretation to those jointresponse CGs which combine dashed directed edges with solid undirected edges (of course, another independency model is associated...
Graphical models and exponential families
 In Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Arti cial Intelligence (UAI98
, 1998
"... We provide a classification of graphical models according to their representation as subfamilies of exponential families. Undirected graphical models with no hidden variables are linear exponential families (LEFs), directed acyclic graphical models and chain graphs with no hidden variables, includin ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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We provide a classification of graphical models according to their representation as subfamilies of exponential families. Undirected graphical models with no hidden variables are linear exponential families (LEFs), directed acyclic graphical models and chain graphs with no hidden variables, including Bayesian networks with several families of local distributions, are curved exponential families (CEFs) and graphical models with hidden variables are stratified exponential families (SEFs). An SEF is a finite union of CEFs satisfying a frontier condition. In addition, we illustrate how one can automatically generate independence and nonindependence constraints on the distributions over the observable variables implied by a Bayesian network with hidden variables. The relevance of these results for model selection is examined. 1
Causal Probabilistic Networks With Both Discrete and Continuous Variables
, 1993
"... An extension of the expert system shell HUGIN to include continuous wriables, in the form of linear additive normally distributed variables, is presented. The ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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An extension of the expert system shell HUGIN to include continuous wriables, in the form of linear additive normally distributed variables, is presented. The
Reduction of Computational Complexity in Bayesian Networks through Removal of Weak Dependences
 IN PROC. TENTH CONF. ON UNCERTAINTY IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1994
"... The paper presents a method for reducing the computational complexity of Bayesian networks through identification and removal of weak dependences (removal of links from the (moralized) independence graph). The removal of a small number of links may reduce the computational complexity dramatically, s ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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The paper presents a method for reducing the computational complexity of Bayesian networks through identification and removal of weak dependences (removal of links from the (moralized) independence graph). The removal of a small number of links may reduce the computational complexity dramatically, since several fillins and moral links may be rendered superfluous by the removal. The method is described in terms of impact on the independence graph, the junction tree, and the potential functions associated with these. An empirical evaluation of the method using large realworld networks demonstrates the applicability of the method. Further, the method, which has been implemented in Hugin, complements the approximation method suggested by Jensen & Andersen (1990).
Dimensionality Reduction in Unsupervised Learning of Conditional Gaussian Networks
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2001
"... This paper introduces a novel enhancement for unsupervised learning of conditional Gaussian networks that benefits from feature selection. Our proposal is based on the assumption that, in the absence of labels reflecting the cluster membership of each case of the database, those features that exh ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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This paper introduces a novel enhancement for unsupervised learning of conditional Gaussian networks that benefits from feature selection. Our proposal is based on the assumption that, in the absence of labels reflecting the cluster membership of each case of the database, those features that exhibit low correlation with the rest of features can be considered irrelevant for the learning process. Thus, we suggest performing this process using only the relevant features. Then, every irrelevant feature is added to the learnt model to obtain an explanatory model for the original database which is our primary goal. A simple and, thus, efficient measure to assess the relevance of the features for the learning process is presented. Additionally, the form of this measure allows us to calculate a relevance threshold to automatically identify the relevant features. The experimental results reported for synthetic and realworld databases show the ability of our proposal to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant features and to accelerate learning; however, still obtaining good explanatory models for the original database.