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25
DataHiding Codes
 Proc. IEEE
, 2005
"... This tutorial paper reviews the theory and design of codes for hiding or embedding information in signals such as images, video, audio, graphics, and text. Such codes have also been called watermarking codes; they can be used in a variety of applications, including copyright protection for digital m ..."
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Cited by 56 (4 self)
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This tutorial paper reviews the theory and design of codes for hiding or embedding information in signals such as images, video, audio, graphics, and text. Such codes have also been called watermarking codes; they can be used in a variety of applications, including copyright protection for digital media, content authentication, media forensics, data binding, and covert communications. Some of these applications imply the presence of an adversary attempting to disrupt the transmission of information to the receiver; other applications involve a noisy, generally unknown, communication channel. Our focus is on the mathematical models, fundamental principles, and code design techniques that are applicable to data hiding. The approach draws from basic concepts in information theory, coding theory, game theory, and signal processing, and is illustrated with applications to the problem of hiding data in images. Keywords—Coding theory, data hiding, game theory, image processing, information theory, security, signal processing, watermarking. I.
Provably Secure Steganography: Achieving Zero K.L. Divergence Using Statistical Restoration
 Proc. IEEE Intl. Conference on Image Processing, ICIP’06
, 2006
"... In this paper, we present a framework for the design of steganographic schemes that can provide provable security by achieving zero KullbackLeibler divergence between the cover and the stego signal distributions, while hiding at high rates. The approach is to reserve a number of host symbols for st ..."
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Cited by 22 (5 self)
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In this paper, we present a framework for the design of steganographic schemes that can provide provable security by achieving zero KullbackLeibler divergence between the cover and the stego signal distributions, while hiding at high rates. The approach is to reserve a number of host symbols for statistical restoration: host statistics perturbed by data embedding are restored by suitably modifying the symbols from the reserved set. A dynamic embedding approach is proposed, which avoids hiding in low probability regions of the host distribution. The framework is applied to design practical schemes for image steganography, which are evaluated using supervised learning on a set of about 1000 natural images. For the presented JPEG steganography scheme, it is seen that the detector is indeed reduced to random guessing. Index Terms data hiding, steganalysis, steganography. 1.
Steganalysis of blockstructured stegotext
 in Proceedings of SPIE
, 2004
"... We study a detectiontheoretic approach to steganalysis. The relative entropy between covertext and stegotext determines the steganalyzer’s difficulty in discriminating them, which in turn defines the detectability of the stegosystem. We consider the case of Gaussian random covertexts and meansquar ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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We study a detectiontheoretic approach to steganalysis. The relative entropy between covertext and stegotext determines the steganalyzer’s difficulty in discriminating them, which in turn defines the detectability of the stegosystem. We consider the case of Gaussian random covertexts and meansquared embedding constraint. We derive a lower bound on the relative entropy between covertext and stegotext for blockbased embedding functions. This lower bound can be approached arbitrarily closely using a spreadspectrum method and secret keys with large entropy. The lower bound can also be attained using a stochastic quantization index modulation (QIM) encoder, without need for secret keys. In general, perfect undetectability can be achieved for blockwise memoryless Gaussian covertexts. For general Gaussian covertexts with memory, the relative entropy increases approximately linearly with the number of blocks observed by the steganalyzer. The error probabilities of the best steganalysis methods decrease exponentially with the number of blocks.
Steganalysis of quantization index modulation data hiding
 in Proceedings of ICIP
, 2004
"... Quantization index modulation (QIM) techniques have been gaining popularity in the data hiding community because of their robustness and informationtheoretic optimality against a large class of attacks. In this paper, we consider detecting the presence of QIM hidden data, which is an important cons ..."
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Cited by 15 (3 self)
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Quantization index modulation (QIM) techniques have been gaining popularity in the data hiding community because of their robustness and informationtheoretic optimality against a large class of attacks. In this paper, we consider detecting the presence of QIM hidden data, which is an important consideration when data hiding is used for covert communication, or steganography. For a given host distribution, we are able to quantify detectability compactly in terms of a parameter related to the robustness of the hiding scheme to attacks. Using detection theory we show that QIM quickly transitions from easily detectable to virtually undetectable as this parameter varies. We also obtain performance benchmarks for QIM hiding in images, indicating that a scheme designed to be robust to, say, a moderate degree of JPEG compression, should be easily detectable. While practical application of detection theory to images is difficult because of statistical variations across images, we employ supervised learning to show that standard QIM schemes for images are indeed quite easily detectable. However, it remains an open issue as to whether it is possible to devise QIM variants that are less vulnerable to steganalysis. 1.
Statistical restoration for robust and secure steganography
 in Proceedings of ICIP
, 2005
"... We investigate data hiding techniques that attempt to defeat steganalysis by restoring the statistics of the composite image to resemble that of the cover. The approach is to reserve a number of host symbols for statistical restoration: host statistics perturbed by data embedding are restored by sui ..."
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Cited by 12 (6 self)
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We investigate data hiding techniques that attempt to defeat steganalysis by restoring the statistics of the composite image to resemble that of the cover. The approach is to reserve a number of host symbols for statistical restoration: host statistics perturbed by data embedding are restored by suitably modifying the symbols from the reserved set. While statistical restoration has broad applicability to a variety of hiding methods, we illustrate our ideas here for quantization index modulation (QIM) based hiding. We propose a method for significantly reducing the detectability of QIM, while preserving its robustness to attacks. We next use the framework of statistical restoration to develop a method to combat steganalysis techniques which detect blockDCT embedding by evaluating the increase in blockiness of the image due to hiding. Numerical results demonstrating the efficacy of these techniques are provided. 1.
A survey of watermarking security
 Proc. of Int. Work. on Digital Watermarking. Volume 3710 of Lecture Notes on Computer Science
, 2005
"... Abstract. Digital watermarking studies have always been driven by the improvement of robustness. Most of articles of this field deal with this criterion, presenting more and more impressive experimental assessments. Some key events in this quest are the use of spread spectrum, the invention of resyn ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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Abstract. Digital watermarking studies have always been driven by the improvement of robustness. Most of articles of this field deal with this criterion, presenting more and more impressive experimental assessments. Some key events in this quest are the use of spread spectrum, the invention of resynchronization schemes, the discovery of side information channel, and the formulation of the opponent actions as a game. On the contrary, security received little attention in the watermarking community. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of this recent topic. We list the typical applications which requires a secure watermarking technique. For each context, a threat analysis is purposed. This presentation allows us to illustrate all the certainties the community has on the subject, browsing all key papers. The end of the paper is devoted to what remains not clear, intuitions and future studies. 1
ML detection of steganography
 Proceedings SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII
, 2005
"... Digital steganography is the art of hiding information in multimedia content, such that it remains perceptually and statistically unchanged. The detection of such covert communication is referred to as steganalysis. To date, steganalysis research has focused primarily on either, the extraction of fe ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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Digital steganography is the art of hiding information in multimedia content, such that it remains perceptually and statistically unchanged. The detection of such covert communication is referred to as steganalysis. To date, steganalysis research has focused primarily on either, the extraction of features from a document that are sensitive to the embedding, or the inference of some statistical difference between marked and unmarked objects. In this work, we evaluate the statistical limits of such techniques by developing asymptotically optimal tests (Maximum Likelihood) for a number of side informed embedding schemes. The required probability density functions (pdf) are derived for Dither Modulation (DM) and DistortionCompensated Dither Modulation (DCDM/SCS) from an steganalyst’s point of view. For both embedding techniques, the pdfs are derived in the presence and absence of a secret dither key. The resulting tests are then compared to a robust blind steganalytic test based on feature extraction. The performance of the tests is evaluated using an integral measure and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
A Survey on Image Steganography and Steganalysis
, 2010
"... Abstract. Steganography and steganalysis are important topics in information hiding. Steganography refers to the technology of hiding data into digital media without drawing any suspicion, while steganalysis is the art of detecting the presence of steganography. This paper provides a survey on stega ..."
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Abstract. Steganography and steganalysis are important topics in information hiding. Steganography refers to the technology of hiding data into digital media without drawing any suspicion, while steganalysis is the art of detecting the presence of steganography. This paper provides a survey on steganography and steganalysis for digital images, mainly covering the fundamental concepts, the progress of steganographic methods for images in spatial representation and in JPEG format, and the development of the corresponding steganalytic schemes. Some commonly used strategies for improving steganographic security and enhancing steganalytic capability are summarized and possible research trends are discussed.
TrellisCoded Quantization For PublicKey Steganography
"... This paper deals with publickey steganography in the presence of a passive warden. The aim is to hide secret messages within coverdocuments without making the warden suspicious, and without any preliminar secret key sharing. Whereas a practical attempt has been already done to provide a solution t ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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This paper deals with publickey steganography in the presence of a passive warden. The aim is to hide secret messages within coverdocuments without making the warden suspicious, and without any preliminar secret key sharing. Whereas a practical attempt has been already done to provide a solution to this problem, it suffers of poor flexibility (since embedding and decoding steps highly depend on coversignals statistics) and of little capacity compared to recent data hiding techniques. Using the same framework, this paper explores the use of trelliscoded quantization techniques (TCQ and turbo TCQ) to design a more efficient publickey scheme. Experiments on audio signals show great improvements considering Cachin's security criterion.
Secure steganography: Statistical restoration of the second order dependencies for improved security
 In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2007. ICASSP 2007. IEEE Intern. Conf. on
, 2007
"... We present practical approaches for steganography that can provide improved security by closely matching the secondorder statistics of the host rather than just the marginal distribution. The methods are based on the framework of statistical restoration, wherein a fraction of the host symbols avail ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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We present practical approaches for steganography that can provide improved security by closely matching the secondorder statistics of the host rather than just the marginal distribution. The methods are based on the framework of statistical restoration, wherein a fraction of the host symbols available for hiding is actually used to restore the statistics; thus reducing the rate, but providing security against steganalysis. We establish correspondence between steganography and the earthmover's distance (EMD), a popular distance metric used in computer vision applications. The EMD framework can be used to define the optimum flow (modifications) of the host symbols for compensation. This formulation is used for image steganography by restoring the secondorder statistics of the blockwise discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients. Some practical limitations of this approach (such as computational complexity and difficulty in dealing with overlapping coefficient pairs) are noted, and a new method is proposed that alleviates these deficiencies by identifying the coefficients to modify based on a local compensation criterion. Experimental results on several thousand natural images demonstrate the utility of the presented methods. Index Terms earth mover's distance, joint compensation, statistical restoration, steganalysis, steganography. 1.