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On Small Characteristic Algebraic Tori in PairingBased Cryptography
, 2004
"... The output of the Tate pairing on an elliptic curve over a nite eld is an element in the multiplicative group of an extension eld modulo a particular subgroup. One ordinarily powers this element to obtain a unique representative for the output coset, and performs any further necessary arithmet ..."
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Cited by 32 (3 self)
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The output of the Tate pairing on an elliptic curve over a nite eld is an element in the multiplicative group of an extension eld modulo a particular subgroup. One ordinarily powers this element to obtain a unique representative for the output coset, and performs any further necessary arithmetic in the extension eld. Rather than an obstruction, we show to the contrary that one can exploit this quotient group to eliminate the nal powering, to speed up exponentiations and to obtain a simple compression of pairing values which is useful during interactive identitybased cryptographic protocols. Speci cally we demonstrate that methods available for fast point multiplication on elliptic curves such as mixed addition, signed digit representations and Frobenius expansions, all transfer easily to the quotient group, and provide a signi cant improvement over the arithmetic of the extension eld.
High Security PairingBased Cryptography Revisited
 In Algorithmic Number Theory Symposium – ANTS VII, SpringerVerlag LNCS XXXX, XXXX–XXXX
, 2006
"... The security and performance of pairing based cryptography has provoked a large volume of research, in part because of the exciting new cryptographic schemes that it underpins. We reexamine how one should implement pairings over ordinary elliptic curves for various practical levels of security. ..."
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Cited by 29 (5 self)
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The security and performance of pairing based cryptography has provoked a large volume of research, in part because of the exciting new cryptographic schemes that it underpins. We reexamine how one should implement pairings over ordinary elliptic curves for various practical levels of security. We conclude, contrary to prior work, that the Tate pairing is more e#cient than the Weil pairing for all such security levels. This is achieved by using e#cient exponentiation techniques in the cyclotomic subgroup backed by e#cient squaring routines within the same subgroup.
On the Discrete Logarithm Problem on Algebraic Tori
 In Advances in Cryptology (CRYPTO 2005), Springer LNCS 3621, 66–85
, 2005
"... Abstract. Using a recent idea of Gaudry and exploiting rational representations of algebraic tori, we present an index calculus type algorithm for solving the discrete logarithm problem that works directly in these groups. Using a prototype implementation, we obtain practical upper bounds for the di ..."
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Cited by 13 (3 self)
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Abstract. Using a recent idea of Gaudry and exploiting rational representations of algebraic tori, we present an index calculus type algorithm for solving the discrete logarithm problem that works directly in these groups. Using a prototype implementation, we obtain practical upper bounds for the difficulty of solving the DLP in the tori T2(Fpm)and T6(Fpm) for various p and m. Our results do not affect the security of the cryptosystems LUC, XTR, or CEILIDH over prime fields. However, the practical efficiency of our method against other methods needs further examining, for certain choices of p and m in regions of cryptographic interest. 1
Faster squaring in the cyclotomic subgroup of sixth degree extensions
, 2009
"... This paper describes an extremely efficient squaring operation in the socalled ‘cyclotomic subgroup’ of F × q6, for q ≡ 1 mod 6. This result arises from considering the Weil restriction of scalars of this group from Fq6 to Fq2, and provides efficiency improvements for both pairingbased and torus ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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This paper describes an extremely efficient squaring operation in the socalled ‘cyclotomic subgroup’ of F × q6, for q ≡ 1 mod 6. This result arises from considering the Weil restriction of scalars of this group from Fq6 to Fq2, and provides efficiency improvements for both pairingbased and torusbased cryptographic protocols.
On the Automatic Construction of Indistinguishable Operations
 In Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2005/174
, 2005
"... Abstract. An increasingly important design constraint for software running on ubiquitous computing devices is security, particularly against physical methods such as sidechannel attack. One well studied methodology for defending against such attacks is the concept of indistinguishable functions whi ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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Abstract. An increasingly important design constraint for software running on ubiquitous computing devices is security, particularly against physical methods such as sidechannel attack. One well studied methodology for defending against such attacks is the concept of indistinguishable functions which leak no information about program control flow since all execution paths are computationally identical. However, constructing such functions by hand becomes laborious and error prone as their complexity increases. We investigate techniques for automating this process and find that effective solutions can be constructed with only minor amounts of computational effort.
XTR Implementation on Reconfigurable Hardware
 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2004
"... Abstract. Recently, Lenstra and Verheul proposed an efficient cryptosystem called XTR. This system represents elements of F ∗ p6 with order dividing p 2 − p + 1 by their trace over Fp2. Compared with the usual representation, this one achieves a ratio of three between security size and manipulated d ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Abstract. Recently, Lenstra and Verheul proposed an efficient cryptosystem called XTR. This system represents elements of F ∗ p6 with order dividing p 2 − p + 1 by their trace over Fp2. Compared with the usual representation, this one achieves a ratio of three between security size and manipulated data. Consequently very promising performance compared with RSA and ECC are expected. In this paper, we are dealing with hardware implementation of XTR, and more precisely with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The intrinsic parallelism of such a device is combined with efficient modular multiplication algorithms to obtain effective implementation(s) of XTR with respect to time and area. We also compare our implementations with hardware implementations of RSA and ECC. This shows that XTR achieves a very high level of speed with small area requirements: an XTR exponentiation is carried out in less than 0.21 ms at a frequency beyond 150 MHz.
On Small Degree Extension Fields in Cryptology
, 2005
"... that are based in, or map to, the multiplicative group of finite fields with small extension degree. A central observation is that the multiplicative group of extension fields essentially decomposes as a product of algebraic tori, whose properties allow for improved communication efficiency. ..."
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that are based in, or map to, the multiplicative group of finite fields with small extension degree. A central observation is that the multiplicative group of extension fields essentially decomposes as a product of algebraic tori, whose properties allow for improved communication efficiency.