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14
Computational Complexity  A Modern Approach
, 2009
"... Not to be reproduced or distributed without the authors ’ permissioniiTo our wives — Silvia and RavitivAbout this book Computational complexity theory has developed rapidly in the past three decades. The list of surprising and fundamental results proved since 1990 alone could fill a book: these incl ..."
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Cited by 161 (2 self)
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Not to be reproduced or distributed without the authors ’ permissioniiTo our wives — Silvia and RavitivAbout this book Computational complexity theory has developed rapidly in the past three decades. The list of surprising and fundamental results proved since 1990 alone could fill a book: these include new probabilistic definitions of classical complexity classes (IP = PSPACE and the PCP Theorems) and their implications for the field of approximation algorithms; Shor’s algorithm to factor integers using a quantum computer; an understanding of why current approaches to the famous P versus NP will not be successful; a theory of derandomization and pseudorandomness based upon computational hardness; and beautiful constructions of pseudorandom objects such as extractors and expanders. This book aims to describe such recent achievements of complexity theory in the context of more classical results. It is intended to both serve as a textbook and as a reference for selfstudy. This means it must simultaneously cater to many audiences, and it is carefully designed with that goal. We assume essentially no computational background and very minimal mathematical background, which we review in Appendix A. We have also provided a web site for this book at
TimeSpace Lower Bounds for the PolynomialTime Hierarchy on Randomized Machines
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2006
"... We establish the first polynomialstrength timespace lower bounds for problems in the lineartime hierarchy on randomized machines with twosided error. We show that for any integer ℓ> 1 and constant c < ℓ, there exists a positive constant d such that QSAT ℓ cannot be computed by such machines ..."
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Cited by 16 (6 self)
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We establish the first polynomialstrength timespace lower bounds for problems in the lineartime hierarchy on randomized machines with twosided error. We show that for any integer ℓ> 1 and constant c < ℓ, there exists a positive constant d such that QSAT ℓ cannot be computed by such machines in time n c and space n d, where QSAT ℓ denotes the problem of deciding the validity of a quantified Boolean formula with at most ℓ − 1 quantifier alternations. Moreover, d approaches 1/2 from below as c approaches 1 from above for ℓ = 2, and d approaches 1 from below as c approaches 1 from above for ℓ ≥ 3. In fact, we establish the stronger result that for any constants a ≤ 1 and c < 1+(ℓ −1)a, there exists a positive constant d such that lineartime alternating machines using space n a and ℓ − 1 alternations cannot be simulated by randomized machines with twosided error running in time n c and space n d, where d approaches a/2 from below as c approaches 1 from above for ℓ = 2 and d approaches a from below as c approaches 1 from above for ℓ ≥ 3. Corresponding to ℓ = 1, we prove that there exists a positive constant d such that the set of Boolean tautologies cannot be decided by a randomized machine with onesided error in time n 1.759 and space n d. As a corollary, this gives the same lower bound for satisfiability on deterministic machines, improving on the previously best known such result. 1
A Survey of Lower Bounds for Satisfiability and Related Problems
 Foundations and Trends in Theoretical Computer Science
, 2007
"... Ever since the fundamental work of Cook from 1971, satisfiability has been recognized as a central problem in computational complexity. It is widely believed to be intractable, and yet till recently even a lineartime, logarithmicspace algorithm for satisfiability was not ruled out. In 1997 Fortnow ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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Ever since the fundamental work of Cook from 1971, satisfiability has been recognized as a central problem in computational complexity. It is widely believed to be intractable, and yet till recently even a lineartime, logarithmicspace algorithm for satisfiability was not ruled out. In 1997 Fortnow, building on earlier work by Kannan, ruled out such an algorithm. Since then there has been a significant amount of progress giving nontrivial lower bounds on the computational complexity of satisfiability. In this article we survey the known lower bounds for the time and space complexity of satisfiability and closely related problems on deterministic, randomized, and quantum models with random access. We discuss the stateoftheart results and present the underlying arguments in a unified framework. 1
TimeSpace Tradeoffs for Counting NP Solutions Modulo Integers
 In Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity
, 2007
"... We prove the first timespace tradeoffs for counting the number of solutions to an NP problem modulo small integers, and also improve upon known timespace tradeoffs for Sat. Let m> 0 be an integer, and define MODmSat to be the problem of determining if a given Boolean formula has exactly km sat ..."
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Cited by 12 (5 self)
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We prove the first timespace tradeoffs for counting the number of solutions to an NP problem modulo small integers, and also improve upon known timespace tradeoffs for Sat. Let m> 0 be an integer, and define MODmSat to be the problem of determining if a given Boolean formula has exactly km satisfying assignments, for some integer k. We show for all primes p except for possibly one of them, and for all c < 2cos(π/7) ≈ 1.801, there is a d> 0 such that MODpSat is not solvable in n c time and n d space by general algorithms. That is, there is at most one prime p that does not satisfy the tradeoff. We prove that the same limitation holds for Sat and MOD6Sat, as well as MODmSat for any composite m that is not a prime power. Our main tool is a general method for rapidly simulating deterministic computations with restricted space, by counting the number of solutions to NP predicates modulo integers. The simulation converts an ordinary algorithm into a “canonical ” one that consumes roughly the same amount of time and space, yet canonical algorithms have nice properties suitable for counting.
Algorithms and Resource Requirements for Fundamental Problems
, 2007
"... no. DGE0234630. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of any sponsoring institution, the U.S. government or any other entity. ..."
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Cited by 10 (6 self)
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no. DGE0234630. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of any sponsoring institution, the U.S. government or any other entity.
A quantum timespace lower bound for the counting hierarchy
, 2007
"... We obtain the first nontrivial timespace lower bound for quantum algorithms solving problems related to satisfiability. Our bound applies to MajSAT and MajMajSAT, which are complete problems for the first and second levels of the counting hierarchy, respectively. We prove that for every real d and ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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We obtain the first nontrivial timespace lower bound for quantum algorithms solving problems related to satisfiability. Our bound applies to MajSAT and MajMajSAT, which are complete problems for the first and second levels of the counting hierarchy, respectively. We prove that for every real d and every positive real ǫ there exists a real c> 1 such that either: • MajMajSAT does not have a quantum algorithm with bounded twosided error that runs in time n c, or • MajSAT does not have a quantum algorithm with bounded twosided error that runs in time n d and space n 1−ǫ. In particular, MajMajSAT cannot be solved by a quantum algorithm with bounded twosided error running in time n 1+o(1) and space n 1−ǫ for any ǫ> 0. The key technical novelty is a time and spaceefficient simulation of quantum computations with intermediate measurements by probabilistic machines with unbounded error. We also develop a model that is particularly suitable for the study of general quantum computations with simultaneous time and space bounds. However, our arguments hold for any reasonable uniform model of quantum computation. 1
Automated proofs of time lower bounds
, 2007
"... A fertile area of recent research has demonstrated concrete polynomial time lower bounds for solving natural hard problems on restricted computational models. Among these problems are Satisfiability, Vertex Cover, Hamilton Path, MOD6SAT, MajorityofMajoritySAT, and Tautologies, to name a few. The ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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A fertile area of recent research has demonstrated concrete polynomial time lower bounds for solving natural hard problems on restricted computational models. Among these problems are Satisfiability, Vertex Cover, Hamilton Path, MOD6SAT, MajorityofMajoritySAT, and Tautologies, to name a few. These lower bound proofs all follow a certain diagonalizationbased proofbycontradiction strategy. A pressing open problem has been to determine how powerful such proofs can possibly be. We propose an automated theoremproving methodology for studying these lower bound problems. In particular, we prove that the search for better lower bounds can often be turned into a problem of solving a large series of linear programming instances. We describe an implementation of a smallscale theorem prover and discover surprising experimental results. In some settings, our program provides strong evidence that the best known lower bound proofs are already optimal for the current framework, contradicting the consensus intuition; in others, the program guides us to improved lower bounds where none had been known for years.
AlternationTrading Proofs, Linear Programming, and Lower Bounds
"... A fertile area of recent research has demonstrated concrete polynomial time lower bounds for solving natural hard problems on restricted computational models. Among these problems are Satisfiability, Vertex Cover, Hamilton Path, MOD6SAT, MajorityofMajoritySAT, and Tautologies, to name a few. The ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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A fertile area of recent research has demonstrated concrete polynomial time lower bounds for solving natural hard problems on restricted computational models. Among these problems are Satisfiability, Vertex Cover, Hamilton Path, MOD6SAT, MajorityofMajoritySAT, and Tautologies, to name a few. The proofs of these lower bounds follow a certain proofbycontradiction strategy, which we call “resourcetrading” or “alternationtrading.” An important open problem is to determine how powerful such proofs can possibly be. We propose a methodology for studying these proofs that makes them amenable to both formal analysis and automated theorem proving. Formalizing the framework, we prove that the search for better lower bounds can often be turned into a problem of solving a large series of linear programming instances. We implement a smallscale theorem prover and report surprising results, which allow us to extract new humanreadable time lower bounds for several problems. We also use the framework to prove concrete limitations on the current techniques.
TimeSpace Efficient Simulations of Quantum Computations
, 2010
"... We give two time and spaceefficient simulations of quantum computations with intermediate measurements, one by classical randomized computations with unbounded error and the other by quantum computations that use an arbitrary fixed universal set of gates. Specifically, our simulations show that ev ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We give two time and spaceefficient simulations of quantum computations with intermediate measurements, one by classical randomized computations with unbounded error and the other by quantum computations that use an arbitrary fixed universal set of gates. Specifically, our simulations show that every language solvable by a boundederror quantum algorithm running in time t and space s is also solvable by an unboundederror randomized algorithm running in time O(t · log t) and space O(s + log t), as well as by a boundederror quantum algorithm restricted to use an arbitrary universal set and running in time O(t · polylog t) and space O(s + log t), provided the universal set is closed under adjoint. We also develop a quantum model that is particularly suitable for the study of general computations with simultaneous time and space bounds. As an application of our randomized simulation, we obtain the first nontrivial lower bound for general quantum algorithms solving problems related to satisfiability. Our bound applies to MajSAT and MajMajSAT, which are the problems of determining the truth value of a given Boolean formula whose variables are fully quantified by one or two majority quantifiers, respectively. We prove that for every real d and every positive real δ there exists a real c> 1 such that either • MajMajSAT does not have a boundederror quantum algorithm running in time O(n c), or • MajSAT does not have a boundederror quantum algorithm running in time O(n d) and space O(n 1−δ). In particular, MajMajSAT does not have a boundederror quantum algorithm running in time O(n 1+o(1) ) and space O(n 1−δ) for any δ> 0. Our lower bounds hold for any reasonable uniform model of quantum computation, in particular for the model we develop. 1
Abstract
, 2008
"... Nepomnjaˇsčiǐ’s Theorem states that for all 0 ≤ ǫ < 1 and k> 0 the class of languages recognized in nondeterministic time n k and space n ǫ, NTISP[n k, n ǫ], is contained in the linear time hierarchy. By considering restrictions on the size of the universal quantifiers in the linear time hiera ..."
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Nepomnjaˇsčiǐ’s Theorem states that for all 0 ≤ ǫ < 1 and k> 0 the class of languages recognized in nondeterministic time n k and space n ǫ, NTISP[n k, n ǫ], is contained in the linear time hierarchy. By considering restrictions on the size of the universal quantifiers in the linear time hierarchy, this paper refines Nepomnjaˇsčiǐ’s result to give a subhierarchy, EuLinH, of the linear time hierarchy that is contained in NP and which contains NTISP[n k, n ǫ]. Hence, EuLinH contains NL and SC. This paper investigates basic structural properties of EuLinH. Then the relationships between EuLinH and the classes NL, SC, and NP are considered to see if they can shed light on the NL = NP or SC = NP questions. Finally, a new hierarchy, ξLinH, is defined to reduce the space requirements needed for the upper bound on EuLinH. Mathematics Subject Classification: 03F30, 68Q15 Keywords: structural complexity, linear time hierarchy, Nepomnjaˇsčiǐ’s Theorem