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Toward formal development of ML programs: foundations and methodology
, 1989
"... A formal methodology is presented for the systematic evolution of modular Standard ML programs from specifications by means of verified refinement steps, in the framework of the Extended ML specification language. Program development proceeds via a sequence of design (modular decomposition), codi ..."
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Cited by 51 (20 self)
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A formal methodology is presented for the systematic evolution of modular Standard ML programs from specifications by means of verified refinement steps, in the framework of the Extended ML specification language. Program development proceeds via a sequence of design (modular decomposition), coding and refinement steps. For each of these three kinds of steps, conditions are given which ensure the correctness of the result. These conditions seem to be as weak as possible under the constraint of being expressible as "local" interface matching requirements. Interfaces are only required to match up to behavioural equivalence, which is seen as vital to the use of data abstraction in program development. Copyright c fl 1989 by D. Sannella and A. Tarlecki. All rights reserved. An extended abstract of this paper will appear in Proc. Colloq. on Current Issues in Programming Languages, Joint Conf. on Theory and Practice of Software Development (TAPSOFT), Barcelona, Springer LNCS (1989)....
Moving Between Logical Systems
 Recent Trends in Data Type Specification
, 1998
"... : This paper presents a number of concepts of a mapping between logical systems modelled as institutions, discusses their mutual merits and demerits, and sketches their role in the process of system specification and development. Some simple properties of the resulting categories of institutions are ..."
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Cited by 50 (3 self)
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: This paper presents a number of concepts of a mapping between logical systems modelled as institutions, discusses their mutual merits and demerits, and sketches their role in the process of system specification and development. Some simple properties of the resulting categories of institutions are given. 1 Introduction We have to live with a multitude of logical systems used in various approaches to software specification and development. The proliferation of logical systems in the area is not just researchers' fancy, but results from the very practical needs to capture various aspects of software systems and to cater for various programming paradigms. Each of them leads to a different notion of a semantic model capturing the semantic essence of the adopted view of software systems. For instance, standard (manysorted) algebras [BL70], [GTW78] provide a satisfactory framework for modelling data types where all operations always yield welldefined results. However, if general recursi...
Abstract Petri Nets as a Uniform Approach to HighLevel Petri Nets
, 1998
"... In the area of Petri nets, many different developments have taken place within the last 30 years, in academia as well as in practice. For an adequate use in practice, a coherent and application oriented combination of various types and techniques for Petri nets is necessary. In order to attain ..."
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Cited by 36 (18 self)
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In the area of Petri nets, many different developments have taken place within the last 30 years, in academia as well as in practice. For an adequate use in practice, a coherent and application oriented combination of various types and techniques for Petri nets is necessary. In order to attain a formal basis for different classes of Petri nets we introduce the concept of abstract Petri nets. The essential point of abstract Petri nets is to allow different kinds of net structures as well as the combination of various kinds of data types. This means that in abstract Petri nets the data type and the net structure part can be considered as abstract parameters which can be instantiated to different concrete net classes. We show that several net classes, like place/transition nets, elementary nets, Sgraphs, algebraic highlevel net...
Logical Systems for Structured Specifications
, 2000
"... We study proof systems for reasoning about logical consequences and refinement of structured specifications, based on similar systems proposed earlier in the literature [ST 88, Wir 91]. Following Goguen and Burstall, the notion of an underlying logical system over which we build specifications is fo ..."
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Cited by 36 (1 self)
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We study proof systems for reasoning about logical consequences and refinement of structured specifications, based on similar systems proposed earlier in the literature [ST 88, Wir 91]. Following Goguen and Burstall, the notion of an underlying logical system over which we build specifications is formalized as an institution and extended to a more general notion, called (D, T )institution. We show that under simple assumptions (essentially: amalgamation and interpolation) the proposed proof systems are sound and complete. The completeness proofs are inspired by proofs due to M. V. Cengarle (see [Cen 94]) for specifications in firstorder logic and the logical systems for reasoning about them. We then propose a methodology for reusing proof systems built over institutions rich enough to satisfy the properties required for the completeness results for specifications built over poorer institutions where these properties need not hold.
Temporal Structures
, 1990
"... We combine the principles of the FloydWarshallKleene algorithm, enriched categories, and Birkhoff arithmetic, to yield a useful class of algebras of transitive vertexlabeled spaces. The motivating application is a uniform theory of abstract or parametrized time in which to any given notion of tim ..."
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Cited by 29 (20 self)
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We combine the principles of the FloydWarshallKleene algorithm, enriched categories, and Birkhoff arithmetic, to yield a useful class of algebras of transitive vertexlabeled spaces. The motivating application is a uniform theory of abstract or parametrized time in which to any given notion of time there corresponds an algebra of concurrent behaviors and their operations, always the same operations but interpreted automatically and appropriately for that notion of time. An interesting side application is a language for succinctly naming a wide range of datatypes. 1 Introduction Posets, metric spaces, "closed" automata, and categories have in common the notion of a space of points with distances between points. These distances are respectively truth values, reals, languages, and sets. Distances have two facets, logical and metrical. The logical facet is expressed respectively via implications p ! q between truth values, comparisons x y between reals, inclusions L ` M between langua...
Analysis of inconsistency in graphbased viewpoints
 In ASE
, 2003
"... Eliciting the requirements for a proposed system typically involves different stakeholders with different expertise, responsibilities, and perspectives. Viewpointsbased approaches have been proposed as a way to manage incomplete and inconsistent models gathered from multiple sources. In this paper, ..."
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Cited by 27 (11 self)
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Eliciting the requirements for a proposed system typically involves different stakeholders with different expertise, responsibilities, and perspectives. Viewpointsbased approaches have been proposed as a way to manage incomplete and inconsistent models gathered from multiple sources. In this paper, we propose a categorytheoretic framework for the analysis of fuzzy viewpoints. Informally, a fuzzy viewpoint is a graph in which the elements of a lattice are used to specify the amount of knowledge available about the details of nodes and edges. By defining an appropriate notion of morphism between fuzzy viewpoints, we construct categories of fuzzy viewpoints and prove that these categories are (finitely) cocomplete. We then show how colimits can be employed to merge the viewpoints and detect the inconsistencies that arise independent of any particular choice of viewpoint semantics. We illustrate an application of the framework through a casestudy showing how fuzzy viewpoints can serve as a requirements elicitation tool in reactive systems. 1
Interpolation in Grothendieck Institutions
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2003
"... It is well known that interpolation properties of logics underlying specification formalisms play an important role in the study of structured specifications, they have also many other useful logical consequences. In this paper, we solve the interpolation problem for Grothendieck institutions which ..."
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Cited by 25 (3 self)
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It is well known that interpolation properties of logics underlying specification formalisms play an important role in the study of structured specifications, they have also many other useful logical consequences. In this paper, we solve the interpolation problem for Grothendieck institutions which have recently emerged as an important mathematical structure underlying heterogenous multilogic specification. Our main result can be used in the applications in several different ways. It can be used to establish interpolation properties for multilogic Grothendieck institutions, but also to lift interpolation properties from unsorted logics to their many sorted variants. The importance of the latter resides in the fact that, unlike other structural properties of logics, many sorted interpolation is a nontrivial generalisation of unsorted interpolation. The concepts, results, and the applications discussed in this paper are illustrated with several examples from conventional logic and algebraic specification theory.
Using Limits of Parchments to Systematically Construct Institutions of Partial Algebras
 Recent Trends in Data Type Specifications. 11th Workshop on Specification of Abstract Data Types, volume 1130 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1996
"... this paper, so we leave them out here. Thus we can apply the idea of combining things via colimits to institutions themselves, with the special point that we have to take limits here instead of colimits. Taking limits in CAT results in categories of "amalgamated objects", i. e. we put signatures an ..."
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Cited by 15 (5 self)
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this paper, so we leave them out here. Thus we can apply the idea of combining things via colimits to institutions themselves, with the special point that we have to take limits here instead of colimits. Taking limits in CAT results in categories of "amalgamated objects", i. e. we put signatures and models together at the level of single objects. In contrast to this, sentences are combined with colimits in Set (due to the contravariant direction of the sentence component). That is, sets of sentences are combined. To show how this works, we introduce some wellknown institutions and morphisms between them.
Combining and Representing Logical Systems Using ModelTheoretic Parchments
 In Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques, volume 1376 of LNCS
, 1997
"... . The paper addresses important problems of building complex logical systems and their representations in universal logics in a systematic way. We adopt the modeltheoretic view of logic as captured in the notions of institution and of parchment (an algebraic way of presenting institutions). We prop ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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. The paper addresses important problems of building complex logical systems and their representations in universal logics in a systematic way. We adopt the modeltheoretic view of logic as captured in the notions of institution and of parchment (an algebraic way of presenting institutions). We propose a new, modified notion of parchment together with parchment morphisms and representations. In contrast to the original parchment definition and our earlier work, in modeltheoretic parchments introduced here the universal semantic structure is distributed over individual signatures and models. We lift formal properties of the categories of institutions and their representations to this level: the category of modeltheoretic parchments is complete, and their representations may be put together using categorical limits as well. However, modeltheoretic parchments provide a more adequate framework for systematic combination of logical systems than institutions. We indicate how the necessar...
Structured theory presentations and logic representations
 ANNALS OF PURE AND APPLIED LOGIC
, 1994
"... The purpose of a logical framework such as LF is to provide a language for defining logical systems suitable for use in a logicindependent proof development environment. All inferential activity in an object logic (in particular, proof search) is to be conducted in the logical framework via the ..."
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Cited by 14 (2 self)
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The purpose of a logical framework such as LF is to provide a language for defining logical systems suitable for use in a logicindependent proof development environment. All inferential activity in an object logic (in particular, proof search) is to be conducted in the logical framework via the representation of that logic in the framework. An important tool for controlling search in an object logic, the need for which is motivated by the difficulty of reasoning about large and complex systems, is the use of structured theory presentations. In this paper a rudimentary language of structured theory presentations is presented, and the use of this structure in proof search for an arbitrary object logic is explored. The behaviour of structured theory presentations under representation in a logical framework is studied, focusing on the problem of "lifting" presentations from the object logic to the metalogic of the framework. The topic of imposing structure on logic presentations...