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Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: Overview and conceptual comparison
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2003
"... The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important meta ..."
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Cited by 194 (14 self)
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The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important metaheuristics from a conceptual point of view. We outline the different components and concepts that are used in the different metaheuristics in order to analyze their similarities and differences. Two very important concepts in metaheuristics are intensification and diversification. These are the two forces that largely determine the behaviour of a metaheuristic. They are in some way contrary but also complementary to each other. We introduce a framework, that we call the I&D frame, in order to put different intensification and diversification components into relation with each other. Outlining the advantages and disadvantages of different metaheuristic approaches we conclude by pointing out the importance of hybridization of metaheuristics as well as the integration of metaheuristics and other methods for optimization.
Simulated annealing: Practice versus theory
 Mathl. Comput. Modelling
, 1993
"... this paper "ergodic" is used in a very weak sense, as it is not proposed, theoretically or practically, that all states of the system are actually to be visited ..."
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Cited by 183 (20 self)
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this paper "ergodic" is used in a very weak sense, as it is not proposed, theoretically or practically, that all states of the system are actually to be visited
An Empirical Study of Algorithms for Point Feature Label Placement
, 1994
"... A major factor affecting the clarity of graphical displays that include text labels is the degree to which labels obscure display features (including other labels) as a result of spatial overlap. Pointfeature label placement (PFLP) is the problem of placing text labels adjacent to point features on ..."
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Cited by 149 (8 self)
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A major factor affecting the clarity of graphical displays that include text labels is the degree to which labels obscure display features (including other labels) as a result of spatial overlap. Pointfeature label placement (PFLP) is the problem of placing text labels adjacent to point features on a map or diagram so as to maximize legibility. This problem occurs frequently in the production of many types of informational graphics, though it arises most often in automated cartography. In this paper we present a comprehensive treatment of the PFLP problem, viewed as a type of combinatorial optimization problem. Complexity analysis reveals that the basic PFLP problem and most interesting variants of it are NPhard. These negative results help inform a survey of previously reported algorithms for PFLP; not surprisingly, all such algorithms either have exponential time complexity or are incomplete. To solve the PFLP problem in practice, then, we must rely on good heuristic methods. We pr...
Iterated local search
 Handbook of Metaheuristics, volume 57 of International Series in Operations Research and Management Science
, 2002
"... Iterated Local Search has many of the desirable features of a metaheuristic: it is simple, easy to implement, robust, and highly effective. The essential idea of Iterated Local Search lies in focusing the search not on the full space of solutions but on a smaller subspace defined by the solutions th ..."
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Cited by 134 (15 self)
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Iterated Local Search has many of the desirable features of a metaheuristic: it is simple, easy to implement, robust, and highly effective. The essential idea of Iterated Local Search lies in focusing the search not on the full space of solutions but on a smaller subspace defined by the solutions that are locally optimal for a given optimization engine. The success of Iterated Local Search lies in the biased sampling of this set of local optima. How effective this approach turns out to be depends mainly on the choice of the local search, the perturbations, and the acceptance criterion. So far, in spite of its conceptual simplicity, it has lead to a number of stateoftheart results without the use of too much problemspecific knowledge. But with further work so that the different modules are well adapted to the problem at hand, Iterated Local Search can often become a competitive or even state of the art algorithm. The purpose of this review is both to give a detailed description of this metaheuristic and to show where it stands in terms of performance. O.M. acknowledges support from the Institut Universitaire de France. This work was partially supported by the “Metaheuristics Network”, a Research Training Network funded by the Improving Human Potential programme of the CEC, grant HPRNCT199900106. The information provided is the sole responsibility of the authors and does not reflect the Community’s opinion. The Community is not responsible for any use that might be made of data appearing in this publication. 1 1
Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 131 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
LargeStep Markov Chains for the Traveling Salesman Problem
 Complex Systems
, 1991
"... We introduce a new class of Markov chain Monte Carlo search procedures, leading to more powerful optimization methods than simulated annealing. The main idea is to embed deterministic local search techniques into stochastic algorithms. The Monte Carlo explores only local optima, and it is able to ma ..."
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Cited by 98 (6 self)
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We introduce a new class of Markov chain Monte Carlo search procedures, leading to more powerful optimization methods than simulated annealing. The main idea is to embed deterministic local search techniques into stochastic algorithms. The Monte Carlo explores only local optima, and it is able to make large, global changes, even at low temperatures, thus overcoming large barriers in configuration space. We test these procedures in the case of the Traveling Salesman Problem. The embedded local searches we use are 3opt and LinKernighan. The large change or step consists of a special kind of 4change followed by localopt minimization. We test this algorithm on a number of instances. The power of the method is illustrated by solving to optimality some large problems such as the LIN318, the AT&T532, and the RAT783 problems. For even larger instances with randomly distributed cities, the Markov chain procedure improves 3opt by over 1.6%, and LinKernighan by 1.3%, leading to a new best h...
Unsupervised Texture Segmentation in a Deterministic Annealing Framework
, 1998
"... We present a novel optimization framework for unsupervised texture segmentation that relies on statistical tests as a measure of homogeneity. Texture segmentation is formulated as a data clustering problem based on sparse proximity data. Dissimilarities of pairs of textured regions are computed from ..."
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Cited by 96 (9 self)
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We present a novel optimization framework for unsupervised texture segmentation that relies on statistical tests as a measure of homogeneity. Texture segmentation is formulated as a data clustering problem based on sparse proximity data. Dissimilarities of pairs of textured regions are computed from a multiscale Gabor filter image representation. We discuss and compare a class of clustering objective functions which is systematically derived from invariance principles. As a general optimization framework we propose deterministic annealing based on a meanfield approximation. The canonical way to derive clustering algorithms within this framework as well as an efficient implementation of meanfield annealing and the closely related Gibbs sampler are presented. We apply both annealing variants to Brodatzlike microtexture mixtures and realword images.
Efficient GraphBased Energy Minimization Methods In Computer Vision
, 1999
"... ms (we show that exact minimization in NPhard in these cases). These algorithms produce a local minimum in interesting large move spaces. Furthermore, one of them nds a solution within a known factor from the optimum. The algorithms are iterative and compute several graph cuts at each iteration. Th ..."
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Cited by 87 (5 self)
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ms (we show that exact minimization in NPhard in these cases). These algorithms produce a local minimum in interesting large move spaces. Furthermore, one of them nds a solution within a known factor from the optimum. The algorithms are iterative and compute several graph cuts at each iteration. The running time at each iteration is eectively linear due to the special graph structure. In practice it takes just a few iterations to converge. Moreover most of the progress happens during the rst iteration. For a certain piecewise constant prior we adapt the algorithms developed for the piecewise smooth prior. One of them nds a solution within a factor of two from the optimum. In addition we develop a third algorithm which nds a local minimum in yet another move space. We demonstrate the eectiveness of our approach on image restoration, stereo, and motion. For the data with ground truth, our methods signicantly outperform standard methods. Biographical Sketch Olga
Combining Simulated Annealing with Local Search Heuristics
, 1993
"... We introduce a metaheuristic to combine simulated annealing with local search methods for CO problems. This new class of Markov chains leads to significantly more powerful optimization methods than either simulated annealing or local search. The main idea is to embed deterministic local search tech ..."
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Cited by 84 (7 self)
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We introduce a metaheuristic to combine simulated annealing with local search methods for CO problems. This new class of Markov chains leads to significantly more powerful optimization methods than either simulated annealing or local search. The main idea is to embed deterministic local search techniques into simulated annealing so that the chain explores only local optima. It makes large, global changes, even at low temperatures, thus overcoming large barriers in configuration space. We have tested this metaheuristic for the traveling salesman and graph partitioning problems. Tests on instances from public libraries and random ensembles quantify the power of the method. Our algorithm is able to solve large instances to optimality, improving upon state of the art local search methods very significantly. For the traveling salesman problem with randomly distributed cities in a square, the procedure improves on 3opt by 1.6%, and on LinKernighan local search by 1.3%. For the partitioni...
Adaptive simulated annealing (ASA): Lessons learned
 Control and Cybernetics
, 1996
"... Adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) is a global optimization algorithm based on an associated proof that the parameter space can be sampled much more efficiently than by using other previous simulated annealing algorithms. The author's ASA code has been publicly available for over two years. ..."
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Cited by 75 (14 self)
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Adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) is a global optimization algorithm based on an associated proof that the parameter space can be sampled much more efficiently than by using other previous simulated annealing algorithms. The author's ASA code has been publicly available for over two years. During this time the author has volunteered to help people via email, and the feedback obtained has been used to further develop the code.