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 Implicit Policy, Invisible, Language: Policies and Practices of International Degree Programmes in Finnish Higher Education’. in EnglishMedium Instruction at Universities. Global Challenges
, 1984
"... A challenge for 21st century molecular biology and biochemistry: what are the causes of obligate autotrophy and methanotrophy? for at least one of the three components of the aketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in these obligate organisms. It is recognized that absence of a single functional enzym ..."
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A challenge for 21st century molecular biology and biochemistry: what are the causes of obligate autotrophy and methanotrophy? for at least one of the three components of the aketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in these obligate organisms. It is recognized that absence of a single functional enzyme may not explain obligate autotrophy in all cases and may indeed be only be one of a 2. Genome sequences and bioinformatic databases as untapped resources................ 337 3. Background to obligate metabolic modes of life................................ 337 3.1. Bacterial obligate autotrophy and methanotrophy and their relationship to autotrophy in Archaea............................................ 337 obiology.org by guest on Septem ber 16, 2016
Advances in Aerodynamic Shape Optimization
, 2004
"... Introduction The focus of CFD applications has shifted to aerodynamic design. This shift has been mainly motivated by the availability of high performance computing platforms and by the development of new and e#cient analysis and design algorithms. In particular automatic design procedures, which u ..."
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Introduction The focus of CFD applications has shifted to aerodynamic design. This shift has been mainly motivated by the availability of high performance computing platforms and by the development of new and e#cient analysis and design algorithms. In particular automatic design procedures, which use CFD combined with gradientbased optimization techniques, have had a significant impact on the design process by removing di#culties in the decision making process faced by the aerodynamicist. A fast way of calculating the accurate gradient information is essential since the gradient calculation can be the most time consuming portion of the design algorithm. The computational cost of gradient calculation can be dramatically reduced by the control theory approach since the computational expense incurred in the calculation of the complete gradient is e#ectively independent of the number of design variables. The foundation of control theory for systems governed by partial di#erential equat
An AdjointBased Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Methodology for Fairing Systems
"... The optimization of a fairing system is formulated in terms of the overall performance of the launch vehiclefairing system as measured by the total velocity increment within a maximum load constraint at the fairingvehicle interface. This objective requires a timeaccurate treatment of the vehicle’ ..."
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The optimization of a fairing system is formulated in terms of the overall performance of the launch vehiclefairing system as measured by the total velocity increment within a maximum load constraint at the fairingvehicle interface. This objective requires a timeaccurate treatment of the vehicle’s aerodynamics and, when adjoint sensitivities are used for gradient information, a timeaccurate adjoint functional as well. The fairing’s geometry is parameterized in terms of a local spherical coordinate system which can be perturbed via the manipulation of spline control points or HicksHenne bump functions. The local surface perturbation and the continuous adjoint capabilities of the SU2 design suite allow for accurate sensitivities of the aerodynamic performance to the geometric parameters for use with gradientbased optimization algorithms. A sample mediumlift launch vehicle is used as an example to demonstrate the method and results of the optimization presented in addition to possibilities to improve the method. Nomenclature A = area A = matrix of linear constraints
Challenges and Complexity of Aerodynamic Wing Design
"... This paper focuses on aerodynamic design methodology. It discusses challenges and complexity of aerodynamic wing design for a transonic aircraft, which arise from the complex nature of flow around the wing. It introduces the concept of automatic design based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ..."
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This paper focuses on aerodynamic design methodology. It discusses challenges and complexity of aerodynamic wing design for a transonic aircraft, which arise from the complex nature of flow around the wing. It introduces the concept of automatic design based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the concept of adjoint method. At the conceptual level, the adjoint method largely simplifies the complexity of the design, yet makes the optimization process possible at the practical level. A redesign for a shockfree wing is presented, showing the e#ectiveness of the automatic design. An extension to include a large scale wing design such as planform optimization is also presented. However, a new cost function needs to be properly chosen and the problem actually leads to multiobjective optimization. Successful planform design results also confirm the robustness of this automatic design strategy
FEDSM200345812 THE ROLE OF CFD IN PRELIMINARY AEROSPACE DESIGN
"... This paper discusses the role that computational fluid dynamics plays in the design of aircraft. An overview of the design process is provided, covering some of the typical decisions that a design team addresses within a multidisciplinary environment. On a very regular basis tradeoffs between disc ..."
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This paper discusses the role that computational fluid dynamics plays in the design of aircraft. An overview of the design process is provided, covering some of the typical decisions that a design team addresses within a multidisciplinary environment. On a very regular basis tradeoffs between disciplines have to be made where a set of conflicting requirements exists. Within an aircraft development project, we focus on the aerodynamic design problem and review how this process has been advanced, first with the improving capabilities of traditional computational fluid dynamics analyses, and then with aerodynamic optimizations based on these increasingly accurate methods. 1