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42
Faulttolerant quantum computation
 In Proc. 37th FOCS
, 1996
"... It has recently been realized that use of the properties of quantum mechanics might speed up certain computations dramatically. Interest in quantum computation has since been growing. One of the main difficulties in realizing quantum computation is that decoherence tends to destroy the information i ..."
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Cited by 201 (4 self)
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It has recently been realized that use of the properties of quantum mechanics might speed up certain computations dramatically. Interest in quantum computation has since been growing. One of the main difficulties in realizing quantum computation is that decoherence tends to destroy the information in a superposition of states in a quantum computer, making long computations impossible. A further difficulty is that inaccuracies in quantum state transformations throughout the computation accumulate, rendering long computations unreliable. However, these obstacles may not be as formidable as originally believed. For any quantum computation with t gates, we show how to build a polynomial size quantum circuit that tolerates O(1 / log c t) amounts of inaccuracy and decoherence per gate, for some constant c; the previous bound was O(1 /t). We do this by showing that operations can be performed on quantum data encoded by quantum errorcorrecting codes without decoding this data. 1.
Quantum lower bounds by quantum arguments
 In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2000
"... We propose a new method for proving lower bounds on quantum query algorithms. Instead of a classical adversary that runs the algorithm with one input and then modifies the input, we use a quantum adversary that runs the algorithm with a superposition of inputs. If the algorithm works correctly, its ..."
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Cited by 146 (15 self)
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We propose a new method for proving lower bounds on quantum query algorithms. Instead of a classical adversary that runs the algorithm with one input and then modifies the input, we use a quantum adversary that runs the algorithm with a superposition of inputs. If the algorithm works correctly, its state becomes entangled with the superposition over inputs. We bound the number of queries needed to achieve a sufficient entanglement and this implies a lower bound on the number of queries for the computation. Using this method, we prove two new Ω ( √ N) lower bounds on computing AND of ORs and inverting a permutation and also provide more uniform proofs for several known lower bounds which have been previously proven via variety of different techniques. 1
Parallel Algorithms for Integer Factorisation
"... The problem of finding the prime factors of large composite numbers has always been of mathematical interest. With the advent of public key cryptosystems it is also of practical importance, because the security of some of these cryptosystems, such as the RivestShamirAdelman (RSA) system, depends o ..."
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Cited by 41 (17 self)
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The problem of finding the prime factors of large composite numbers has always been of mathematical interest. With the advent of public key cryptosystems it is also of practical importance, because the security of some of these cryptosystems, such as the RivestShamirAdelman (RSA) system, depends on the difficulty of factoring the public keys. In recent years the best known integer factorisation algorithms have improved greatly, to the point where it is now easy to factor a 60decimal digit number, and possible to factor numbers larger than 120 decimal digits, given the availability of enough computing power. We describe several algorithms, including the elliptic curve method (ECM), and the multiplepolynomial quadratic sieve (MPQS) algorithm, and discuss their parallel implementation. It turns out that some of the algorithms are very well suited to parallel implementation. Doubling the degree of parallelism (i.e. the amount of hardware devoted to the problem) roughly increases the size of a number which can be factored in a fixed time by 3 decimal digits. Some recent computational results are mentioned – for example, the complete factorisation of the 617decimal digit Fermat number F11 = 2211 + 1 which was accomplished using ECM.
The physical implementation of quantum computation
 Fortschr. Phys
, 2000
"... After a brief introduction to the principles and promise of quantum information processing, the requirements for the physical implementation of quantum computation are discussed. These five requirements, plus two relating to the communication of quantum information, are extensively explored and rela ..."
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Cited by 40 (0 self)
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After a brief introduction to the principles and promise of quantum information processing, the requirements for the physical implementation of quantum computation are discussed. These five requirements, plus two relating to the communication of quantum information, are extensively explored and related to the many schemes in atomic physics, quantum optics, nuclear and electron magnetic resonance spectroscopy, superconducting electronics, and quantumdot physics, for achieving quantum computing. 1.
Quantum factoring, discrete logarithms and the hidden subgroup problem
"... Amongst the most remarkable successes of quantum computation are Shor’s efficient quantum algorithms for the computational tasks of integer factorisation and the evaluation of discrete logarithms. In this article we review the essential ingredients of these algorithms and draw out the unifying gener ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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Amongst the most remarkable successes of quantum computation are Shor’s efficient quantum algorithms for the computational tasks of integer factorisation and the evaluation of discrete logarithms. In this article we review the essential ingredients of these algorithms and draw out the unifying generalization of the socalled abelian hidden subgroup problem. This involves an unexpectedly harmonious alignment of the formalism of quantum physics with the elegant mathematical theory of group representations and fourier transforms on finite groups. Finally we consider the nonabelian hidden subgroup problem mentioning some open questions where future quantum algorithms may be expected to have a substantial impact. 1
On the power of Ambainis’s lower bounds
 Theoretical Computer Science, 339(23):241– 256, 2005. Earlier version in ICALP’04. 569 Copyright © by SIAM. Unauthorized
"... The polynomial method and Ambainis’s lower bound method are two main quantum lower bound techniques. Recently Ambainis showed that the polynomial method is not tight. The present paper aims at studying the limitation of Ambainis’s lower bounds. We first give a generalization of the three known Ambai ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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The polynomial method and Ambainis’s lower bound method are two main quantum lower bound techniques. Recently Ambainis showed that the polynomial method is not tight. The present paper aims at studying the limitation of Ambainis’s lower bounds. We first give a generalization of the three known Ambainis’s lower bound theorems. Then it is shown that all these four Ambainis’s lower bounds have an upper bound, which is in terms of certificate complexity. This implies that for some problems such as TRIANGLE, kCLIQUE, and BIPARTITE/GRAPH MATCHING whose quantum query complexities are still open, the best known lower bounds cannot be further improved by using Ambainis’s techniques. Another consequence is that all the Ambainis’s lower bounds are not tight. Finally, we show that for total functions, this upper bound for Ambainis’s lower bounds can be further improved. This also implies limitation of Ambainis’s method on some specific problems such as ANDOR TREE, whose precise quantum complexity is still unknown. 1
Church's thesis meets the Nbody problem
, 1999
"... THIS IS A REVISIONINPROGRESS! NOT QUITE FINAL YET! "Church's thesis" is at the foundation of computer science. It is pointed out that with any particular set of physical laws, Church's thesis need not merely be postulated, in fact it may be decidable. Trying to do so is valuable. In Newton's laws ..."
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Cited by 23 (0 self)
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THIS IS A REVISIONINPROGRESS! NOT QUITE FINAL YET! "Church's thesis" is at the foundation of computer science. It is pointed out that with any particular set of physical laws, Church's thesis need not merely be postulated, in fact it may be decidable. Trying to do so is valuable. In Newton's laws of physics with point masses, we outline a proof that Church's thesis is false. But with certain more realistic laws of motion, incorporating some relativistic effects, the Extended Church's thesis is true. Along the way we prove a useful theorem: a wide class of ordinary differential equations may be integrated with "polynomial slowdown. " Warning: we cannot give careful definitions and caveats in this abstract, and interpreting our results is difficult. Keywords  Newtonian Nbody problem, Church's thesis, computability, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. Contents 1 Background 1 2 Introduction. Our results and their interpretation. 2 2.1 First way to interpret the...
A Rosetta stone for quantum mechanics with an introduction to quantum computation
, 2002
"... Abstract. The purpose of these lecture notes is to provide readers, who have some mathematical background but little or no exposure to quantum mechanics and quantum computation, with enough material to begin reading ..."
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Cited by 21 (11 self)
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Abstract. The purpose of these lecture notes is to provide readers, who have some mathematical background but little or no exposure to quantum mechanics and quantum computation, with enough material to begin reading
Recent progress and prospects for integer factorisation algorithms
 In Proc. of COCOON 2000
, 2000
"... Abstract. The integer factorisation and discrete logarithm problems are of practical importance because of the widespread use of public key cryptosystems whose security depends on the presumed difficulty of solving these problems. This paper considers primarily the integer factorisation problem. In ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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Abstract. The integer factorisation and discrete logarithm problems are of practical importance because of the widespread use of public key cryptosystems whose security depends on the presumed difficulty of solving these problems. This paper considers primarily the integer factorisation problem. In recent years the limits of the best integer factorisation algorithms have been extended greatly, due in part to Moore’s law and in part to algorithmic improvements. It is now routine to factor 100decimal digit numbers, and feasible to factor numbers of 155 decimal digits (512 bits). We outline several integer factorisation algorithms, consider their suitability for implementation on parallel machines, and give examples of their current capabilities. In particular, we consider the problem of parallel solution of the large, sparse linear systems which arise with the MPQS and NFS methods. 1
Architectural implications of quantum computing technologies
 ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (JETC
, 2006
"... In this article we present a classification scheme for quantum computing technologies that is based on the characteristics most relevant to computer systems architecture. The engineering tradeoffs of execution speed, decoherence of the quantum states, and size of systems are described. Concurrency, ..."
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Cited by 17 (4 self)
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In this article we present a classification scheme for quantum computing technologies that is based on the characteristics most relevant to computer systems architecture. The engineering tradeoffs of execution speed, decoherence of the quantum states, and size of systems are described. Concurrency, storage capacity, and interconnection network topology influence algorithmic efficiency, while quantum error correction and necessary quantum state measurement are the ultimate drivers of logical clock speed. We discuss several proposed technologies. Finally, we use our taxonomy to explore architectural implications for common arithmetic circuits, examine the implementation of quantum error correction, and discuss clusterstate quantum computation.