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46
Fast construction of nets in lowdimensional metrics and their applications
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2006
"... We present a near linear time algorithm for constructing hierarchical nets in finite metric spaces with constant doubling dimension. This datastructure is then applied to obtain improved algorithms for the following problems: approximate nearest neighbor search, wellseparated pair decomposition, s ..."
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Cited by 98 (11 self)
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We present a near linear time algorithm for constructing hierarchical nets in finite metric spaces with constant doubling dimension. This datastructure is then applied to obtain improved algorithms for the following problems: approximate nearest neighbor search, wellseparated pair decomposition, spanner construction, compact representation scheme, doubling measure, and computation of the (approximate) Lipschitz constant of a function. In all cases, the running (preprocessing) time is near linear and the space being used is linear. 1
Compact and Localized Distributed Data Structures
 JOURNAL OF DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
, 2001
"... This survey concerns the role of data structures for compactly storing and representing various types of information in a localized and distributed fashion. Traditional approaches to data representation are based on global data structures, which require access to the entire structure even if the sou ..."
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Cited by 71 (26 self)
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This survey concerns the role of data structures for compactly storing and representing various types of information in a localized and distributed fashion. Traditional approaches to data representation are based on global data structures, which require access to the entire structure even if the sought information involves only a small and local set of entities. In contrast, localized data representation schemes are based on breaking the information into small local pieces, or labels, selected in a way that allows one to infer information regarding a small set of entities directly from their labels, without using any additional (global) information. The survey focuses on combinatorial and algorithmic techniques, and covers complexity results on various applications, including compact localized schemes for message routing in communication networks, and adjacency and distance labeling schemes.
Bypassing the embedding: Algorithms for lowdimensional metrics
 In Proceedings of the 36th ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing (STOC
, 2004
"... The doubling dimension of a metric is the smallest k such that any ball of radius 2r can be covered using 2 k balls of radius r. This concept for abstract metrics has been proposed as a natural analog to the dimension of a Euclidean space. If we could embed metrics with low doubling dimension into l ..."
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Cited by 64 (4 self)
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The doubling dimension of a metric is the smallest k such that any ball of radius 2r can be covered using 2 k balls of radius r. This concept for abstract metrics has been proposed as a natural analog to the dimension of a Euclidean space. If we could embed metrics with low doubling dimension into low dimensional Euclidean spaces, they would inherit several algorithmic and structural properties of the Euclidean spaces. Unfortunately however, such a restriction on dimension does not suffice to guarantee embeddibility in a normed space. In this paper we explore the option of bypassing the embedding. In particular we show the following for low dimensional metrics: • Quasipolynomial time (1+ɛ)approximation algorithm for various optimization problems such as TSP, kmedian and facility location. • (1 + ɛ)approximate distance labeling scheme with optimal label length. • (1+ɛ)stretch polylogarithmic storage routing scheme.
Distance Estimation and Object Location via Rings of Neighbors
 In 24 th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC
, 2005
"... We consider four problems on distance estimation and object location which share the common flavor of capturing global information via informative node labels: lowstretch routing schemes [47], distance labeling [24], searchable small worlds [30], and triangulationbased distance estimation [33]. Fo ..."
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Cited by 64 (4 self)
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We consider four problems on distance estimation and object location which share the common flavor of capturing global information via informative node labels: lowstretch routing schemes [47], distance labeling [24], searchable small worlds [30], and triangulationbased distance estimation [33]. Focusing on metrics of low doubling dimension, we approach these problems with a common technique called rings of neighbors, which refers to a sparse distributed data structure that underlies all our constructions. Apart from improving the previously known bounds for these problems, our contributions include extending Kleinberg’s small world model to doubling metrics, and a short proof of the main result in Chan et al. [14]. Doubling dimension is a notion of dimensionality for general metrics that has recently become a useful algorithmic concept in the theoretical computer science literature. 1
Labeling schemes for small distances in trees
 In Proceedings of the ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
, 2003
"... Abstract. We consider labeling schemes for trees, supporting various relationships between nodes at small distance. For instance, we show that given a tree T and an integer k we can assign labels to each node of T such that given the label of two nodes we can decide, from these two labels alone, if ..."
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Cited by 27 (2 self)
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Abstract. We consider labeling schemes for trees, supporting various relationships between nodes at small distance. For instance, we show that given a tree T and an integer k we can assign labels to each node of T such that given the label of two nodes we can decide, from these two labels alone, if the distance between v and w is at most k and if so compute it. For trees with n nodes and k ≥ 2, we give a lower bound on the maximum label length of log n + Ω(log log n) bits, and for constant k, we give an upper bound of log n+O(log log n). Bounds for ancestor, sibling, connectivity and bi and triconnectivity labeling schemes are also presented. Key words. Labeling schemes, trees. AMS subject classifications. 68R10, 68W01
Distributed Verification of Minimum Spanning Trees
 Proc. 25th Annual Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing
, 2006
"... The problem of verifying a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) was introduced by Tarjan in a sequential setting. Given a graph and a tree that spans it, the algorithm is required to check whether this tree is an MST. This paper investigates the problem in the distributed setting, where the input is given in ..."
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Cited by 19 (17 self)
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The problem of verifying a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) was introduced by Tarjan in a sequential setting. Given a graph and a tree that spans it, the algorithm is required to check whether this tree is an MST. This paper investigates the problem in the distributed setting, where the input is given in a distributed manner, i.e., every node “knows ” which of its own emanating edges belong to the tree. Informally, the distributed MST verification problem is the following. Label the vertices of the graph in such a way that for every node, given (its own label and) the labels of its neighbors only, the node can detect whether these edges are indeed its MST edges. In this paper we present such a verification scheme with a maximum label size of O(log n log W), where n is the number of nodes and W is the largest weight of an edge. We also give a matching lower bound of Ω(log n log W) (except when W ≤ log n). Both our bounds improve previously known bounds for the problem. Our techniques (both for the lower bound and for the upper bound) may indicate a strong relation between the fields of proof labeling schemes and implicit labeling schemes. For the related problem of tree sensitivity also presented by Tarjan, our method yields rather efficient schemes for both the distributed and the sequential settings.
Labeling Schemes for Dynamic Tree Networks
 Theory of Computing Systems
, 2002
"... Distance labeling schemes are composed of a marker algorithm for labeling the vertices of a graph with short labels, coupled with a decoder algorithm allowing one to compute the distance between any two vertices directly from their labels (without using any additional information). As applications f ..."
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Cited by 16 (12 self)
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Distance labeling schemes are composed of a marker algorithm for labeling the vertices of a graph with short labels, coupled with a decoder algorithm allowing one to compute the distance between any two vertices directly from their labels (without using any additional information). As applications for distance labeling schemes concern mainly large and dynamically changing networks, it is of interest to study distributed dynamic labeling schemes. The current paper considers the problem on dynamic trees, and proposes efficient distributed schemes for it. The paper first presents a labeling scheme for distances in the dynamic tree model, with amortized message complexity O(log 2 n) per operation, where n is the size of the tree at the time the operation takes place. The protocol maintains O(log 2 n) bit labels. This label size is known to be optimal even in the static scenario. A more general labeling scheme is then introduced for the dynamic tree model, based on extending an existing static tree labeling scheme to the dynamic setting. The approach fits a number of natural tree functions, such as distance, separation level and flow. The main resulting scheme incurs an overhead of a O(log n) multiplicative factor in both the label size and amortized message complexity in the case of dynamically growing trees (with no vertex deletions). If an upper bound on n is known in advance, this method yields a different tradeoff, with an O(log 2 n / log log n) multiplicative overhead on the label size but only an O(log n / log log n) overhead on the amortized message complexity. In the fullydynamic model the scheme incurs also an increased additive overhead in amortized communication, of O(log 2 n) messages per operation.
Labeling Schemes for Weighted Dynamic Trees
 In Proc. 30th Int. Colloq. on Automata, Languages & Prog
, 2003
"... A Distance labeling scheme is a type of localized network representation in which short labels are assigned to the vertices, allowing one to infer the distance between any two vertices directly from their labels, without using any additional information sources. As most applications for network repr ..."
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Cited by 16 (11 self)
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A Distance labeling scheme is a type of localized network representation in which short labels are assigned to the vertices, allowing one to infer the distance between any two vertices directly from their labels, without using any additional information sources. As most applications for network representations in general, and distance labeling schemes in particular, concern large and dynamically changing networks, it is of interest to focus on distributed dynamic labeling schemes. The paper considers dynamic weighted trees where the vertices of the trees are fixed but the (positive integral) weights of the edges may change. The two models considered are the edgedynamic model, where from time to time some edge changes its weight by a fixed quanta, and the increasingdynamic model in which edge weights can only grow. The paper presents distributed approximate distance labeling schemes for the two dynamic models, which are efficient in terms of the required label size and communication complexity involved in updating the labels following the weight changes.
Treedecompositions with bags of small diameter
, 2007
"... This paper deals with the length of a Robertson–Seymour’s treedecomposition. The treelength of a graph is the largest distance between two vertices of a bag of a treedecomposition, minimized over all treedecompositions of the graph. The study of this invariant may be interesting in its own right ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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This paper deals with the length of a Robertson–Seymour’s treedecomposition. The treelength of a graph is the largest distance between two vertices of a bag of a treedecomposition, minimized over all treedecompositions of the graph. The study of this invariant may be interesting in its own right because the class of bounded treelength graphs includes (but is not reduced to) bounded chordality graphs (like interval graphs, permutation graphs, ATfree graphs, etc.). For instance, we show that the treelength of any outerplanar graph is ⌈k/3⌉, where k is the chordality of the graph, and we compute the treelength of meshes. More fundamentally we show that any algorithm computing a treedecomposition approximating the treewidth (or the treelength) of an nvertex graph by a factor α or less does not give an αapproximation of the treelength (resp. the treewidth) unless if α = Ω(n 1/5). We complete these results presenting several polynomial time constant approximate algorithms for the treelength. The introduction of this parameter is motivated by the design of compact distance labeling, compact routing tables with nearoptimal route length, and by the construction of sparse additive spanners.
General Compact Labeling Schemes for Dynamic Trees
 In Proc. 19th Int. Symp. on Distributed Computing
, 2005
"... Let F be a function on pairs of vertices. An F labeling scheme is composed of a marker algorithm for labeling the vertices of a graph with short labels, coupled with a decoder algorithm allowing one to compute F (u, v) of any two vertices u and v directly from their labels. As applications for labe ..."
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Cited by 13 (9 self)
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Let F be a function on pairs of vertices. An F labeling scheme is composed of a marker algorithm for labeling the vertices of a graph with short labels, coupled with a decoder algorithm allowing one to compute F (u, v) of any two vertices u and v directly from their labels. As applications for labeling schemes concern mainly large and dynamically changing networks, it is of interest to study distributed dynamic labeling schemes. This paper investigates labeling schemes for dynamic trees. We consider two dynamic tree models, namely, the leafdynamic tree model in which at each step a leaf can be added to or removed from the tree and the leafincreasing tree model in which the only topological event that may occur is that a leaf joins the tree. A general method for constructing labeling schemes for dynamic trees (under the above mentioned dynamic tree models) was previously developed in [29]. This method is based on extending an existing static tree labeling scheme to the dynamic setting. This approach fits many natural functions on trees, such as distance, separation level, ancestry relation, routing (in both the adversary and the designer port models), nearest common ancestor etc.. Their