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Qualitative Spatial Representation and Reasoning: An Overview
 FUNDAMENTA INFORMATICAE
, 2001
"... The paper is a overview of the major qualitative spatial representation and reasoning techniques. We survey the main aspects of the representation of qualitative knowledge including ontological aspects, topology, distance, orientation and shape. We also consider qualitative spatial reasoning inclu ..."
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Cited by 179 (16 self)
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The paper is a overview of the major qualitative spatial representation and reasoning techniques. We survey the main aspects of the representation of qualitative knowledge including ontological aspects, topology, distance, orientation and shape. We also consider qualitative spatial reasoning including reasoning about spatial change. Finally there is a discussion of theoretical results and a glimpse of future work. The paper is a revised and condensed version of [33, 34].
Using Orientation Information for Qualitative Spatial Reasoning
 Theories and Methods of SpatioTemporal Reasoning in Geographic Space, LNCS 639, SpringerVerlag
, 1992
"... Abstract. A new approach to representing qualitative spatial knowledge and to spatial reasoning is presented. This approach is motivated by cognitive considerations and is based on relative orientation information about spatial environments. The approach aims at exploiting properties of physical spa ..."
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Cited by 164 (8 self)
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Abstract. A new approach to representing qualitative spatial knowledge and to spatial reasoning is presented. This approach is motivated by cognitive considerations and is based on relative orientation information about spatial environments. The approach aims at exploiting properties of physical space which surface when the spatial knowledge is structured according to conceptual neighborhood of spatial relations. The paper introduces the notion of conceptual neighborhood and its relevance for qualitative temporal reasoning. The extension of the benefits to spatial reasoning is suggested. Several approaches to qualitative spatial reasoning are briefly reviewed. Differences between the temporal and the spatial domain are outlined. A way of transferring a qualitative temporal reasoning method to the spatial domain is proposed. The resulting neighborhoodoriented representation and reasoning approach is presented and illustrated. An example for an application of the approach is discussed. 1
The `EggYolk' Representation Of Regions with Indeterminate Boundaries
, 1995
"... The paper proposes an approach to representing and reasoning about spatial regions with undetermined boundaries, using an adaptation of `RCCtheory', a regionbased system for representing qualitative spatial relations developed over the last few years (Randell, Cui and Cohn 1992, Cohn, Randell and C ..."
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Cited by 122 (11 self)
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The paper proposes an approach to representing and reasoning about spatial regions with undetermined boundaries, using an adaptation of `RCCtheory', a regionbased system for representing qualitative spatial relations developed over the last few years (Randell, Cui and Cohn 1992, Cohn, Randell and Cui 1994). The approach proposed is referred to as the `eggyolk' representation: a region with undetermined boundaries (a `vague region') is represented by a pair of concentric regions with determinate boundaries (`crisp regions'), which provide limits (not necessarily the tightest limits possible) on the range of indeterminacy. 1 Introduction The topic of this paper is how best to deal with vagueness in spatial representation and reasoning, particularly within the framework of `RCCtheory', (Randell, Cui and Cohn 1992, Cohn et al. 1994), which provides a representation of topological properties and relations in which regions rather than points are taken as primitive. We are concern...
On the Equivalence of Topological Relations
 International Journal of Geographical Information Systems
, 1995
"... Abstract. Analysis of global geographic phenomena requires nonplanar models. In the past, models for topological relations have focused either on a twodimensional or a threedimensional space. When applied to the surface of a sphere, however, neither of the two models suffices. For the twodimensio ..."
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Cited by 114 (13 self)
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Abstract. Analysis of global geographic phenomena requires nonplanar models. In the past, models for topological relations have focused either on a twodimensional or a threedimensional space. When applied to the surface of a sphere, however, neither of the two models suffices. For the twodimensional planar case, the eight binary topological relations between spatial regions are well known from the 9intersection model. This paper systematically develops the binary topological relations that can be realized on the surface of a sphere. Between two regions on the sphere there are three binary relations that cannot be realized in the plane. These relations complete the conceptual neighborhood graph of the eight planar topological relations in a regular fashion, providing evidence for a regularity of the underlying mathematical model. The analysis of the algebraic compositions of spherical topological relations indicates that spherical topological reasoning often provides fewer ambiguities than planar topological reasoning. Finally, a comparison with the relations that can be realized for onedimensional, ordered cycles draws parallels to the spherical topological relations. 1
Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: Cardinal Directions as an Example
, 1996
"... Geographers use spatial reasoning extensively in largescale spaces, i.e., spaces that cannot be seen or understood from a single point of view. Spatial reasoning differentiates several spatial relations, e.g. topological or metric relations, and is typically formalized using a Cartesian coordinate ..."
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Cited by 99 (7 self)
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Geographers use spatial reasoning extensively in largescale spaces, i.e., spaces that cannot be seen or understood from a single point of view. Spatial reasoning differentiates several spatial relations, e.g. topological or metric relations, and is typically formalized using a Cartesian coordinate system and vector algebra. This quantitative processing of information is clearly different from the ways humans draw conclusions about spatial relations. Formalized qualitative reasoning processes are shown to be a necessary part of Spatial Expert Systems and Geographic Information Systems. Addressing a subset of the total problem, namely reasoning with cardinal directions, a completely qualitative method, without recourse to analytical procedures, is introduced and a method for its formal comparison with quantitative formulae is defined. The focus is on the analysis of cardinal directions and their properties. An algebraic method is used to formalize the meaning of directions. The standard...
Qualitative Spatial Representation and Reasoning Techniques
, 1997
"... . The field of Qualitative Spatial Reasoning is now an active research area in its own right within AI (and also in Geographical Information Systems) having grown out of earlier work in philosophical logic and more general Qualitative Reasoning in AI. In this paper (which is an updated version o ..."
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Cited by 97 (9 self)
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. The field of Qualitative Spatial Reasoning is now an active research area in its own right within AI (and also in Geographical Information Systems) having grown out of earlier work in philosophical logic and more general Qualitative Reasoning in AI. In this paper (which is an updated version of [25]) I will survey the state of the art in Qualitative Spatial Reasoning, covering representation and reasoning issues as well as pointing to some application areas. 1 What is Qualitative Reasoning? The principal goal of Qualitative Reasoning (QR) [129] is to represent not only our everyday commonsense knowledge about the physical world, but also the underlying abstractions used by engineers and scientists when they create quantitative models. Endowed with such knowledge, and appropriate reasoning methods, a computer could make predictions, diagnoses and explain the behaviour of physical systems in a qualitative manner, even when a precise quantitative description is not available 1 ...
Novel Approaches to the Indexing of Moving Object Trajectories
, 2000
"... The domain of spatiotemporal applications is a treasure trove of new types of data and queries. However, work in this area is guided by related research from the spatial and temporal domains, so far, with little attention towards the true nature of spatiotemporal phenomena. In this work, the foc ..."
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Cited by 85 (12 self)
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The domain of spatiotemporal applications is a treasure trove of new types of data and queries. However, work in this area is guided by related research from the spatial and temporal domains, so far, with little attention towards the true nature of spatiotemporal phenomena. In this work, the focus is on a spatiotemporal subdomain, namely the trajectories of moving point objects. We present new types of spatiotemporal queries, as well as algorithms to process those. Further, we introduce two access methods this kind of data, namely the SpatioTemporal Rtree (STRtree) and the TrajectoryBundle tree (TBtree). The former is an Rtree based access method that considers the trajectory identity in the index as well, while the latter is a hybrid structure, which preserves trajectories as well as allows for Rtree typical range search in the data. We present performance studies that compare the two indices with the Rtree (appropriately modified, for a fair comparison) under...
Query Processing in SpatialQuerybySketch
 Journal of Visual Languages and Computing
, 1997
"... SpatialQuerybySketch is the design of a query language for geographic information systems. It allows a user to formulate a spatial query by drawing the desired configuration with a pen on a touchsensitive computer screen and translates this sketch into a symbolic representation that can the proc ..."
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Cited by 77 (4 self)
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SpatialQuerybySketch is the design of a query language for geographic information systems. It allows a user to formulate a spatial query by drawing the desired configuration with a pen on a touchsensitive computer screen and translates this sketch into a symbolic representation that can the processed against a geographic database. Since the configurations queried usually do not match exactly the sketch, it is necessary to relax the spatial constraints drawn. This paper describes the representation of a sketch and outlines the design of the constraint relaxation methods used during query processing.
Topological Relations Between Regions With Holes
 Int. Journal of Geographical Information Systems
, 1994
"... The 4intersection, a model for the representation of topological relations between 2dimensional objects with connected boundaries and connected interiors, is extended to cover topological relations between 2dimensional objects with arbitrary holes, called regions with holes. Each region with hole ..."
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Cited by 68 (3 self)
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The 4intersection, a model for the representation of topological relations between 2dimensional objects with connected boundaries and connected interiors, is extended to cover topological relations between 2dimensional objects with arbitrary holes, called regions with holes. Each region with holes is represented by its generalized regionthe union of the object and its holes and the closure of each hole. The topological relation between two regions with holes, A and B, is described by the set of all individual topological relations between (1) A 's generalized region and B's generalized region, (2) A 's generalized region and each of B's holes, (3) B's generalized region with each of A 's holes, and (4) each of A 's holes with each of B's holes. As a side product, the same formalism applies to the description of topological relations between 1spheres. An algorithm is developed that minimizes the number of individual topological relations necessary to describe a configuration completely. This model of representing complex topological relations is suitable for a multilevel treatment of topological relations, at the least detailed level of which the relation between the generalized regions prevails. It is shown how this model applies to the assessment of consistency in multiple representations when, at a coarser level of less detail, regions are generalized by dropping holes.
Similarity of Spatial Scenes
 7 th Symposium on Spatial Data Handling
, 1996
"... Similarity is the assessment of deviation from equivalence. Spatial similarity is complex due to the numerous constraining properties of geographic objects and their embedding in space. Among these properties, the spatial relations between geographic objectstopological, directional, and metrical ..."
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Cited by 54 (6 self)
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Similarity is the assessment of deviation from equivalence. Spatial similarity is complex due to the numerous constraining properties of geographic objects and their embedding in space. Among these properties, the spatial relations between geographic objectstopological, directional, and metricalare critical, because they capture the essence of a scene's structure. These relations can be categorized as a basis for similarity assessment. This paper describes a computational method to formally assess the similarity of spatial scenes based on the ordering of spatial relations. One scene is transformed into another through a sequence of gradual changes of spatial relations. The number of changes required yields a measure that is compared against others, or against a preexisting scale. Two scenes that require a large number of changes are less similar than scenes that require fewer changes.