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615
Matching pursuits with timefrequency dictionaries
 IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
, 1993
"... AbstractWe introduce an algorithm, called matching pursuit, that decomposes any signal into a linear expansion of waveforms that are selected from a redundant dictionary of functions. These waveforms are chosen in order to best match the signal structures. Matching pursuits are general procedures t ..."
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Cited by 1147 (13 self)
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AbstractWe introduce an algorithm, called matching pursuit, that decomposes any signal into a linear expansion of waveforms that are selected from a redundant dictionary of functions. These waveforms are chosen in order to best match the signal structures. Matching pursuits are general procedures to compute adaptive signal representations. With a dictionary of Gabor functions a matching pursuit defines an adaptive timefrequency transform. We derive a signal energy distribution in the timefrequency plane, which does not include interference terms, unlike Wigner and Cohen class distributions. A matching pursuit isolates the signal structures that are coherent with respect to a given dictionary. An application to pattern extraction from noisy signals is described. We compare a matching pursuit decomposition with a signal expansion over an optimized wavepacket orthonormal basis, selected with the algorithm of Coifman and Wickerhauser. I.
Shiftable Multiscale Transforms
, 1992
"... Orthogonal wavelet transforms have recently become a popular representation for multiscale signal and image analysis. One of the major drawbacks of these representations is their lack of translation invariance: the content of wavelet subbands is unstable under translations of the input signal. Wavel ..."
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Cited by 466 (40 self)
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Orthogonal wavelet transforms have recently become a popular representation for multiscale signal and image analysis. One of the major drawbacks of these representations is their lack of translation invariance: the content of wavelet subbands is unstable under translations of the input signal. Wavelet transforms are also unstable with respect to dilations of the input signal, and in two dimensions, rotations of the input signal. We formalize these problems by defining a type of translation invariance that we call "shiftability". In the spatial domain, shiftability corresponds to a lack of aliasing; thus, the conditions under which the property holds are specified by the sampling theorem. Shiftability may also be considered in the context of other domains, particularly orientation and scale. We explore "jointly shiftable" transforms that are simultaneously shiftable in more than one domain. Two examples of jointly shiftable transforms are designed and implemented: a onedimensional tran...
Singularity Detection And Processing With Wavelets
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 1992
"... Most of a signal information is often found in irregular structures and transient phenomena. We review the mathematical characterization of singularities with Lipschitz exponents. The main theorems that estimate local Lipschitz exponents of functions, from the evolution across scales of their wavele ..."
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Cited by 437 (10 self)
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Most of a signal information is often found in irregular structures and transient phenomena. We review the mathematical characterization of singularities with Lipschitz exponents. The main theorems that estimate local Lipschitz exponents of functions, from the evolution across scales of their wavelet transform are explained. We then prove that the local maxima of a wavelet transform detect the location of irregular structures and provide numerical procedures to compute their Lipschitz exponents. The wavelet transform of singularities with fast oscillations have a different behavior that we study separately. We show that the size of the oscillations can be measured from the wavelet transform local maxima. It has been shown that one and twodimensional signals can be reconstructed from the local maxima of their wavelet transform [14]. As an application, we develop an algorithm that removes white noises by discriminating the noise and the signal singularities through an analysis of their ...
A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis
, 1998
"... A practical stepbystep guide to wavelet analysis is given, with examples taken from time series of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The guide includes a comparison to the windowed Fourier transform, the choice of an appropriate wavelet basis function, edge effects due to finitelength t ..."
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Cited by 363 (3 self)
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A practical stepbystep guide to wavelet analysis is given, with examples taken from time series of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The guide includes a comparison to the windowed Fourier transform, the choice of an appropriate wavelet basis function, edge effects due to finitelength time series, and the relationship between wavelet scale and Fourier frequency. New statistical significance tests for wavelet power spectra are developed by deriving theoretical wavelet spectra for white and red noise processes and using these to establish significance levels and confidence intervals. It is shown that smoothing in time or scale can be used to increase the confidence of the wavelet spectrum. Empirical formulas are given for the effect of smoothing on significance levels and confidence intervals. Extensions to wavelet analysis such as filtering, the power Hovmller, crosswavelet spectra, and coherence are described. The statistical significance tests are used to give a qu...
Image Representation Using 2D Gabor Wavelets
 IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1996
"... This paper extends to two dimensions the frame criterion developed by Daubechies for onedimensional wavelets, and it computes the frame bounds for the particular case of 2D Gabor wavelets. Completeness criteria for 2D Gabor image representations are important because of their increasing role in man ..."
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Cited by 286 (4 self)
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This paper extends to two dimensions the frame criterion developed by Daubechies for onedimensional wavelets, and it computes the frame bounds for the particular case of 2D Gabor wavelets. Completeness criteria for 2D Gabor image representations are important because of their increasing role in many computer vision applications and also in modeling biological vision, since recent neurophysiological evidence from the visual cortex of mammalian brains suggests that the filter response profiles of the main class of linearlyresponding cortical neurons (called simple cells) are best modeled as a family of selfsimilar 2D Gabor wavelets. We therefore derive the conditions under which a set of continuous 2D Gabor wavelets will provide a complete representation of any image, and we also find selfsimilar wavelet parameterizations which allow stable reconstruction by summation as though the wavelets formed an orthonormal basis. Approximating a "tight frame" generates redundancy which allows lowresolution neural responses to represent highresolution images, as we illustrate by image reconstructions with severely quantized 2D Gabor coefficients. Index TermsGabor wavelets, coarse coding, image representation, visual cortex, image reconstruction.
Learning Overcomplete Representations
, 2000
"... In an overcomplete basis, the number of basis vectors is greater than the dimensionality of the input, and the representation of an input is not a unique combination of basis vectors. Overcomplete representations have been advocated because they have greater robustness in the presence of noise, can ..."
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Cited by 286 (11 self)
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In an overcomplete basis, the number of basis vectors is greater than the dimensionality of the input, and the representation of an input is not a unique combination of basis vectors. Overcomplete representations have been advocated because they have greater robustness in the presence of noise, can be sparser, and can have greater flexibility in matching structure in the data. Overcomplete codes have also been proposed as a model of some of the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex. Previous work has focused on finding the best representation of a signal using a fixed overcomplete basis (or dictionary). We present an algorithm for learning an overcomplete basis by viewing it as probabilistic model of the observed data. We show that overcomplete bases can yield a better approximation of the underlying statistical distribution of the data and can thus lead to greater coding efficiency. This can be viewed as a generalization of the technique of independent component analysis and provides a method for Bayesian reconstruction of signals in the presence of noise and for blind source separation when there are more sources than mixtures.
Continuous and discrete wavelet transforms
 SIAM REVIEW
, 1989
"... This paper is an expository survey of results on integral representations and discrete sum expansions of functions in L 2 (R) in terms of coherent states. Two types of coherent states are considered: Weyl–Heisenberg coherent states, which arise from translations and modulations of a single functio ..."
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Cited by 217 (29 self)
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This paper is an expository survey of results on integral representations and discrete sum expansions of functions in L 2 (R) in terms of coherent states. Two types of coherent states are considered: Weyl–Heisenberg coherent states, which arise from translations and modulations of a single function, and affine coherent states, called “wavelets,” which arise as translations and dilations of a single function. In each case it is shown how to represent any function in L²R) as a sum or integral of these states. Most of the paper is a survey of literature, most notably the work of I. Daubechies, A. Grossmann, and J. Morlet. A few results of the authors are included.
Data compression and harmonic analysis
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1998
"... In this paper we review some recent interactions between harmonic analysis and data compression. The story goes back of course to Shannon’s R(D) theory... ..."
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Cited by 149 (24 self)
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In this paper we review some recent interactions between harmonic analysis and data compression. The story goes back of course to Shannon’s R(D) theory...
Image Processing with Complex Wavelets
 Phil. Trans. Royal Society London A
, 1997
"... this paper we consider how wavelets may be used for image processing. To date, there has been considerable interest in wavelets for image compression, and they are now commonly used by researchers for this purpose, even though the main international standards still use the discrete cosine transform ..."
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Cited by 121 (5 self)
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this paper we consider how wavelets may be used for image processing. To date, there has been considerable interest in wavelets for image compression, and they are now commonly used by researchers for this purpose, even though the main international standards still use the discrete cosine transform (dct). However for image processing tasks, other than compression, the takeup of wavelets has been less enthusiastic. Here we analyse possible reasons for this and present some new ways to use wavelets which offer significant advantages. A good review of wavelets and their application to compression may be found in Rioul & Vetterli (1991) and indepth coverage is given in the book by Vetterli & Kovacevic (1995). An issue of the Proceedings of the IEEE (Kovacevic & Daubechies 1996) has been devoted to wavelets and includes many very readable articles by leading experts. In x 2 of this paper we introduce the basic discrete wavelet filter tree and show how it may be used to decompose multidimensional signals. In x 3 we show some typical wavelets and illustrate the similar shapes of those which all satisfy the perfect reconstruction constraints. Unfortunately, as explained in x 4, discrete