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99
The geometry of graphs and some of its algorithmic applications
 Combinatorica
, 1995
"... In this paper we explore some implications of viewing graphs as geometric objects. This approach offers a new perspective on a number of graphtheoretic and algorithmic problems. There are several ways to model graphs geometrically and our main concern here is with geometric representations that r ..."
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Cited by 448 (19 self)
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In this paper we explore some implications of viewing graphs as geometric objects. This approach offers a new perspective on a number of graphtheoretic and algorithmic problems. There are several ways to model graphs geometrically and our main concern here is with geometric representations that respect the metric of the (possibly weighted) graph. Given a graph G we map its vertices to a normed space in an attempt to (i) Keep down the dimension of the host space and (ii) Guarantee a small distortion, i.e., make sure that distances between vertices in G closely match the distances between their geometric images. In this paper we develop efficient algorithms for embedding graphs lowdimensionally with a small distortion. Further algorithmic applications include: 0 A simple, unified approach to a number of problems on multicommodity flows, including the LeightonRae Theorem [29] and some of its extensions. 0 For graphs embeddable in lowdimensional spaces with a small distortion, we can find lowdiameter decompositions (in the sense of [4] and [34]). The parameters of the decomposition depend only on the dimension and the distortion and not on the size of the graph. 0 In graphs embedded this way, small balanced separators can be found efficiently. Faithful lowdimensional representations of statistical data allow for meaningful and efficient clustering, which is one of the most basic tasks in patternrecognition. For the (mostly heuristic) methods used
A Tight Bound on Approximating Arbitrary Metrics by Tree Metrics
 In Proceedings of the 35th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2003
"... In this paper, we show that any n point metric space can be embedded into a distribution over dominating tree metrics such that the expected stretch of any edge is O(log n). This improves upon the result of Bartal who gave a bound of O(log n log log n). Moreover, our result is existentially tight; t ..."
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Cited by 260 (7 self)
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In this paper, we show that any n point metric space can be embedded into a distribution over dominating tree metrics such that the expected stretch of any edge is O(log n). This improves upon the result of Bartal who gave a bound of O(log n log log n). Moreover, our result is existentially tight; there exist metric spaces where any tree embedding must have distortion#sto n)distortion. This problem lies at the heart of numerous approximation and online algorithms including ones for group Steiner tree, metric labeling, buyatbulk network design and metrical task system. Our result improves the performance guarantees for all of these problems.
Expander Flows, Geometric Embeddings and Graph Partitioning
 IN 36TH ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE THEORY OF COMPUTING
, 2004
"... We give a O( log n)approximation algorithm for sparsest cut, balanced separator, and graph conductance problems. This improves the O(log n)approximation of Leighton and Rao (1988). We use a wellknown semidefinite relaxation with triangle inequality constraints. Central to our analysis is a ..."
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Cited by 235 (18 self)
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We give a O( log n)approximation algorithm for sparsest cut, balanced separator, and graph conductance problems. This improves the O(log n)approximation of Leighton and Rao (1988). We use a wellknown semidefinite relaxation with triangle inequality constraints. Central to our analysis is a geometric theorem about projections of point sets in , whose proof makes essential use of a phenomenon called measure concentration.
Bounded geometries, fractals, and lowdistortion embeddings
"... The doubling constant of a metric space (X; d) is thesmallest value * such that every ball in X can be covered by * balls of half the radius. The doubling dimension of X isthen defined as dim(X) = log2 *. A metric (or sequence ofmetrics) is called doubling precisely when its doubling dimension is ..."
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Cited by 152 (30 self)
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The doubling constant of a metric space (X; d) is thesmallest value * such that every ball in X can be covered by * balls of half the radius. The doubling dimension of X isthen defined as dim(X) = log2 *. A metric (or sequence ofmetrics) is called doubling precisely when its doubling dimension is bounded. This is a robust class of metric spaceswhich contains many families of metrics that occur in applied settings.We give tight bounds for embedding doubling metrics into (lowdimensional) normed spaces. We consider bothgeneral doubling metrics, as well as more restricted families such as those arising from trees, from graphs excludinga fixed minor, and from snowflaked metrics. Our techniques include decomposition theorems for doubling metrics, andan analysis of a fractal in the plane due to Laakso [21]. Finally, we discuss some applications and point out a centralopen question regarding dimensionality reduction in L2.
The unique games conjecture, integrality gap for cut problems and embeddability of negative type metrics into ℓ1
 In Proceedings of the 46th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2005
"... In this paper we disprove the following conjecture due to Goemans [16] and Linial [24] (also see [5, 26]): “Every negative type metric embeds into ℓ1 with constant distortion.” We show that for every δ>0, and for large enough n, there is an npoint negative type metric which requires distortion atl ..."
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Cited by 124 (10 self)
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In this paper we disprove the following conjecture due to Goemans [16] and Linial [24] (also see [5, 26]): “Every negative type metric embeds into ℓ1 with constant distortion.” We show that for every δ>0, and for large enough n, there is an npoint negative type metric which requires distortion atleast (log log n) 1/6−δ to embed into ℓ1. Surprisingly, our construction is inspired by the Unique Games Conjecture (UGC) of Khot [19], establishing a previously unsuspected connection between PCPs and the theory of metric embeddings. We first prove that the UGC implies superconstant hardness results for (nonuniform) SPARSEST CUT and MINIMUM UNCUT problems. It is already known that the UGC also implies an optimal hardness result for MAXIMUM CUT [20]. Though these hardness results depend on the UGC, the integrality gap instances rely “only ” on the PCP reductions for the respective problems. Towards this, we first construct an integrality gap instance for a natural SDP relaxation of UNIQUE GAMES. Then, we “simulate ” the PCP reduction and “translate ” the integrality gap instance of UNIQUE GAMES to integrality gap instances for the respective cut problems! This enables us to prove a (log log n) 1/6−δ integrality gap for (nonuniform) SPARSEST CUT and MINIMUM UNCUT, and an optimal integrality gap for MAXIMUM CUT. All our SDP solutions satisfy the socalled “triangle inequality ” constraints. This also shows, for the first time, that the triangle inequality constraints do not add any power to the GoemansWilliamson’s SDP relaxation of MAXIMUM CUT. The integrality gap for SPARSEST CUT immediately implies a lower bound for embedding negative type metrics into ℓ1. It also disproves the nonuniform version of Arora, Rao and Vazirani’s Conjecture [5], asserting that the integrality gap of the SPARSEST CUT SDP, with the triangle inequality constraints, is bounded from above by a constant.
DivideandConquer Approximation Algorithms via Spreading Metrics
, 1996
"... We present a novel divideandconquer paradigm for approximating NPhard graph optimization problems. The paradigm models graph optimization problems that satisfy two properties: First, a divideandconquer approach is applicable. Second, a fractional spreading metric is computable in polynomial tim ..."
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Cited by 97 (10 self)
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We present a novel divideandconquer paradigm for approximating NPhard graph optimization problems. The paradigm models graph optimization problems that satisfy two properties: First, a divideandconquer approach is applicable. Second, a fractional spreading metric is computable in polynomial time. The spreading metric assigns rational lengths to either edges or vertices of the input graph, such that all subgraphs on which the optimization problem is nontrivial have large diameters. In addition, the spreading metric provides a lower bound, ø , on the cost of solving the optimization problem. We present a polynomial time approximation algorithm for problems modeled by our paradigm whose approximation factor is O (minflog ø log log ø; log k log log kg), where k denotes the number of "interesting" vertices in the problem instance, and is at most the number of vertices. We present seven problems that can be formulated to fit the paradigm. For all these problems our algorithm improves ...
Semidefinite Programming and Combinatorial Optimization
 DOC. MATH. J. DMV
, 1998
"... We describe a few applications of semide nite programming in combinatorial optimization. ..."
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Cited by 97 (1 self)
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We describe a few applications of semide nite programming in combinatorial optimization.
Approximating Fractional Multicommodity Flow Independent of the Number of Commodities
, 1999
"... We describe fully polynomial time approximation schemes for various multicommodity flow problems in graphs with m edges and n vertices. We present the first approximation scheme for maximum multicommodity flow that is independent of the number of commodities k, and our algorithm improves upon the ru ..."
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Cited by 94 (6 self)
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We describe fully polynomial time approximation schemes for various multicommodity flow problems in graphs with m edges and n vertices. We present the first approximation scheme for maximum multicommodity flow that is independent of the number of commodities k, and our algorithm improves upon the runtime of previous algorithms by this factor of k, performing in O (ffl \Gamma2 m 2 ) time. For maximum concurrent flow, and minimum cost concurrent flow, we present algorithms that are faster than the current known algorithms when the graph is sparse or the number of commodities k is large, i.e. k ? m=n. Our algorithms build on the framework proposed by Garg and Konemann [4]. They are simple, deterministic, and for the versions without costs, they are strongly polynomial. Our maximum multicommodity flow algorithm extends to an approximation scheme for the maximum weighted multicommodity flow, which is faster than those implied by previous algorithms by a factor of k= log W where W is ...
Euclidean distortion and the Sparsest Cut
 In Proceedings of the 37th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2005
"... BiLipschitz embeddings of finite metric spaces, a topic originally studied in geometric analysis and Banach space theory, became an integral part of theoretical computer science following work of Linial, London, and Rabinovich [29]. They presented an algorithmic version of a result of Bourgain [8] ..."
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Cited by 93 (20 self)
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BiLipschitz embeddings of finite metric spaces, a topic originally studied in geometric analysis and Banach space theory, became an integral part of theoretical computer science following work of Linial, London, and Rabinovich [29]. They presented an algorithmic version of a result of Bourgain [8] which shows that every
Measured descent: A new embedding method for finite metrics
 In Proc. 45th FOCS
, 2004
"... We devise a new embedding technique, which we call measured descent, based on decomposing a metric space locally, at varying speeds, according to the density of some probability measure. This provides a refined and unified framework for the two primary methods of constructing Fréchet embeddings for ..."
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Cited by 83 (26 self)
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We devise a new embedding technique, which we call measured descent, based on decomposing a metric space locally, at varying speeds, according to the density of some probability measure. This provides a refined and unified framework for the two primary methods of constructing Fréchet embeddings for finite metrics, due to [Bourgain, 1985] and [Rao, 1999]. We prove that any npoint metric space (X, d) embeds in Hilbert space with distortion O ( √ αX · log n), where αX is a geometric estimate on the decomposability of X. As an immediate corollary, we obtain an O ( √ (log λX)log n) distortion embedding, where λX is the doubling constant of X. Since λX ≤ n, this result recovers Bourgain’s theorem, but when the metric X is, in a sense, “lowdimensional, ” improved bounds are achieved. Our embeddings are volumerespecting for subsets of arbitrary size. One consequence is the existence of (k, O(log n)) volumerespecting embeddings for all 1 ≤ k ≤ n, which is the best possible, and answers positively a question posed by U. Feige. Our techniques are also used to answer positively a question of Y. Rabinovich, showing that any weighted npoint planar graph O(log n) embeds in ℓ∞ with O(1) distortion. The O(log n) bound on the dimension is optimal, and improves upon the previously known bound of O((log n) 2). 1