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67
Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: efficient protocols and outage behavior
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2004
"... Abstract—We develop and analyze lowcomplexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. The underlying techniques exploit space diversity available through cooperating terminals’ relaying signals for one another. We outline several str ..."
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Cited by 1013 (25 self)
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Abstract—We develop and analyze lowcomplexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. The underlying techniques exploit space diversity available through cooperating terminals’ relaying signals for one another. We outline several strategies employed by the cooperating radios, including fixed relaying schemes such as amplifyandforward and decodeandforward, selection relaying schemes that adapt based upon channel measurements between the cooperating terminals, and incremental relaying schemes that adapt based upon limited feedback from the destination terminal. We develop performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading, focusing on the high signaltonoise ratio (SNR) regime. Except for fixed decodeandforward, all of our cooperative diversity protocols are efficient in the sense that they achieve full diversity (i.e., secondorder diversity in the case of two terminals), and, moreover, are close to optimum (within 1.5 dB) in certain regimes. Thus, using distributed antennas, we can provide the powerful benefits of space diversity without need for physical arrays, though at a loss of spectral efficiency due to halfduplex operation and possibly at the cost of additional receive hardware. Applicable to any wireless setting, including cellular or ad hoc networks—wherever space constraints preclude the use of physical arrays—the performance characterizations reveal that large power or energy savings result from the use of these protocols. Index Terms—Diversity techniques, fading channels, outage probability, relay channel, user cooperation, wireless networks. I.
An algebraic approach to network coding
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 2003
"... Abstract—We take a new look at the issue of network capacity. It is shown that network coding is an essential ingredient in achieving the capacity of a network. Building on recent work by Li et al., who examined the network capacity of multicast networks, we extend the network coding framework to ar ..."
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Cited by 518 (89 self)
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Abstract—We take a new look at the issue of network capacity. It is shown that network coding is an essential ingredient in achieving the capacity of a network. Building on recent work by Li et al., who examined the network capacity of multicast networks, we extend the network coding framework to arbitrary networks and robust networking. For networks which are restricted to using linear network codes, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the feasibility of any given set of connections over a given network. We also consider the problem of network recovery for nonergodic link failures. For the multicast setup we prove that there exist coding strategies that provide maximally robust networks and that do not require adaptation of the network interior to the failure pattern in question. The results are derived for both delayfree networks and networks with delays. Index Terms—Algebraic coding, network information theory, network robustness. I.
A Network Information Theory for Wireless Communication: Scaling Laws and Optimal Operation
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2002
"... How much information can be carried over a wireless network with a multiplicity of nodes? What are the optimal strategies for information transmission and cooperation among the nodes? We obtain sharp information theoretic scaling laws under some conditions. ..."
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Cited by 272 (16 self)
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How much information can be carried over a wireless network with a multiplicity of nodes? What are the optimal strategies for information transmission and cooperation among the nodes? We obtain sharp information theoretic scaling laws under some conditions.
Capacity bounds and power allocation for wireless relay channels
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2006
"... Abstract—We consider threenode wireless relay channels in a Rayleighfading environment. Assuming transmitter channel state information (CSI), we study upper bounds and lower bounds on the outage capacity and the ergodic capacity. Our studies take into account practical constraints on the transmiss ..."
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Cited by 176 (6 self)
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Abstract—We consider threenode wireless relay channels in a Rayleighfading environment. Assuming transmitter channel state information (CSI), we study upper bounds and lower bounds on the outage capacity and the ergodic capacity. Our studies take into account practical constraints on the transmission/reception duplexing at the relay node and on the synchronization between the source node and the relay node. We also explore power allocation. Compared to the direct transmission and traditional multihop protocols, our results reveal that optimum relay channel signaling can significantly outperform multihop protocols, and that power allocation has a significant impact on the performance. Index Terms—Channel capacity, cooperative diversity, ergodic capacity, power allocation, relay channel, wireless networks. I.
Towards an Information Theory of Large Networks: An Achievable Rate Region
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2003
"... Abstract — We study communication networks of arbitrary size and topology and communicating over a general vector discrete memoryless channel. We propose an informationtheoretic constructive scheme for obtaining an achievable rate region in such networks. Many wellknown capacitydefining achievabl ..."
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Cited by 161 (9 self)
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Abstract — We study communication networks of arbitrary size and topology and communicating over a general vector discrete memoryless channel. We propose an informationtheoretic constructive scheme for obtaining an achievable rate region in such networks. Many wellknown capacitydefining achievable rate regions can be derived as special cases of the proposed scheme. A few such examples are the physically degraded and reverselydegraded relay channels, the Gaussian multipleaccess channel, and the Gaussian broadcast channel. The proposed scheme also leads to inner bounds for the multicast and allcast capacities. Applying the proposed scheme to a specific wireless network of nodes located in a region of unit area, we show that a transport capacity of ¡£ ¢ bitmeters/sec is feasible in a certain family of networks, as compared to the best possible transport capacity ¡£¢§ ¦ ¨ ¤ of bitmeters/sec in [16] where the receiver capabilities were limited. Even though the improvement is shown for a specific class of networks, a clear implication is that designing and employing more sophisticated multiuser coding schemes can provide sizable gains in at least some large wireless networks. Index Terms — Discrete memoryless channels, Gaussian channels, multiuser communications, network information theory,
On the capacity of large Gaussian relay networks
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2005
"... Abstract—The capacity of a particular large Gaussian relay network is determined in the limit as the number of relays tends to infinity. Upper bounds are derived from cutset arguments, and lower bounds follow from an argument involving uncoded transmission. It is shown that in cases of interest, up ..."
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Cited by 108 (6 self)
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Abstract—The capacity of a particular large Gaussian relay network is determined in the limit as the number of relays tends to infinity. Upper bounds are derived from cutset arguments, and lower bounds follow from an argument involving uncoded transmission. It is shown that in cases of interest, upper and lower bounds coincide in the limit as the number of relays tends to infinity. Hence, this paper provides a new example where a simple cutset upper bound is achievable, and one more example where uncoded transmission achieves optimal performance. The findings are illustrated by geometric interpretations. The techniques developed in this paper are then applied to a sensor network situation. This is a network joint source–channel coding problem, and it is well known that the source–channel separation theorem does not extend to this case. The present paper extends this insight by providing an example where separating source from channel coding does not only lead to suboptimal performance—it leads to an exponential penalty in performance scaling behavior (as a function of the number of nodes). Finally, the techniques developed in this paper are extended to include certain models of ad hoc wireless networks, where a capacity scaling law can be established: When all nodes act purely as relays for a single source–destination pair, capacity grows with the logarithm of the number of nodes. Index Terms—Capacity, CEO problem, joint source–channel coding, network, relay, sensor network, separation theorem, uncoded transmission. I.
Practical Relay Networks: A Generalization of HybridARQ
 IEEE J. SEL. AREAS COMM
, 2005
"... Wireless networks contain an inherent distributed spatial diversity that can be exploited by the use of relaying. Relay networks take advantage of the broadcastoriented nature of radio and require nodebased, rather than linkbased protocols. Prior work on relay networks has studied performance li ..."
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Cited by 93 (2 self)
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Wireless networks contain an inherent distributed spatial diversity that can be exploited by the use of relaying. Relay networks take advantage of the broadcastoriented nature of radio and require nodebased, rather than linkbased protocols. Prior work on relay networks has studied performance limits either with unrealistic assumptions, complicated protocols, or only a single relay. In this paper, a practical approach to networks comprising multiple relays operating over orthogonal time slots is proposed based on a generalization of hybridautomatic repeat request (ARQ). In contrast with conventional hybridARQ, retransmitted packets do not need to come from the original source radio but could instead be sent by relays that overhear the transmission. An information theoretic framework is exposed that establishes the performance limits of such systems in a block fading environment, and numerical results are presented for some representative topologies and protocols. The results indicate a significant improvement in the energylatency tradeoff when compared with conventional multihop protocols implemented as a cascade of pointtopoint links.
The transport capacity of wireless networks over fading channels
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2005
"... Abstract — We consider networks consisting of nodes with radios, and without any wired infrastructure, thus necessitating all communication to take place only over the shared wireless medium. The main focus of this paper is on the effect of fading in such wireless networks. We examine the attenuatio ..."
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Cited by 63 (3 self)
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Abstract — We consider networks consisting of nodes with radios, and without any wired infrastructure, thus necessitating all communication to take place only over the shared wireless medium. The main focus of this paper is on the effect of fading in such wireless networks. We examine the attenuation regime where either the medium is absorptive, a situation which generally prevails, or the path loss exponent is greater than 3. We study the transport capacity, defined as the supremum over the set of feasible rate vectors of the distance weighted sum of rates. We consider two assumption sets. Under the first assumption set, which essentially requires only a mild time average type of bound on the fading process, we show that the transport capacity can grow no faster than ¢¡¤£¦ ¥ , where £ denotes the number of nodes, even when the channel state information (CSI) is available noncausally at both the transmitters and the receivers. This assumption includes common models of stationary ergodic channels; constant, frequency selective channels; flat, rapidly varying channels; and flat slowly varying channels. In the second assumption set, which essentially features an independence, time average of expectation, and nonzeroness condition on the fading process, we constructively show how to achieve transport capacity of § even when the CSI is unknown to both the transmitters and the receivers, provided that every node has an appropriately nearby node. This assumption set includes common models of i.i.d. channels; constant, flat channels; and constant, frequency selective channels. The transport capacity is achieved by nodes only communicating with neighbors, and only using pointtopoint coding. The thrust of these results is that the multihop strategy, towards which much protocol development activity is currently targeted, is appropriate for fading environments. The low attenuation regime is open. Index Terms — Wireless networks, fading channels, capacity, transport capacity.
Bounds on capacity and minimum energyperbit for AWGN relay channels
 IEEE TRANS. INF. THEORY
, 2006
"... Upper and lower bounds on the capacity and minimum energyperbit for general additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and frequencydivision AWGN (FDAWGN) relay channel models are established. First, the maxflow mincut bound and the generalized blockMarkov coding scheme are used to derive upper an ..."
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Cited by 54 (2 self)
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Upper and lower bounds on the capacity and minimum energyperbit for general additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and frequencydivision AWGN (FDAWGN) relay channel models are established. First, the maxflow mincut bound and the generalized blockMarkov coding scheme are used to derive upper and lower bounds on capacity. These bounds are never tight for the general AWGN model and are tight only under certain conditions for the FDAWGN model. Two coding schemes that do not require the relay to decode any part of the message are then investigated. First, it is shown that the “sideinformation coding scheme ” can outperform the blockMarkov coding scheme. It is also shown that the achievable rate of the sideinformation coding scheme can be improved via time sharing. In the second scheme, the relaying functions are restricted to be linear. The problem is reduced to a “singleletter ” nonconvex optimization problem for the FDAWGN model. The paper also establishes a relationship between the minimum energyperbit and capacity of the AWGN relay channel. This relationship together with the lower and upper bounds on capacity are used to establish corresponding lower and upper bounds on the minimum energyperbit that do not differ by more than a factor of 1 45 for the FDAWGN relay channel model and 1 7 for the general AWGN model.