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The space complexity of approximating the frequency moments
 JOURNAL OF COMPUTER AND SYSTEM SCIENCES
, 1996
"... The frequency moments of a sequence containing mi elements of type i, for 1 ≤ i ≤ n, are the numbers Fk = �n i=1 mki. We consider the space complexity of randomized algorithms that approximate the numbers Fk, when the elements of the sequence are given one by one and cannot be stored. Surprisingly, ..."
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Cited by 704 (12 self)
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The frequency moments of a sequence containing mi elements of type i, for 1 ≤ i ≤ n, are the numbers Fk = �n i=1 mki. We consider the space complexity of randomized algorithms that approximate the numbers Fk, when the elements of the sequence are given one by one and cannot be stored. Surprisingly, it turns out that the numbers F0, F1 and F2 can be approximated in logarithmic space, whereas the approximation of Fk for k ≥ 6 requires nΩ(1) space. Applications to data bases are mentioned as well.
Multiparty Communication Complexity
, 1989
"... A given Boolean function has its input distributed among many parties. The aim is to determine which parties to tMk to and what information to exchange with each of them in order to evaluate the function while minimizing the total communication. This paper shows that it is possible to obtain the Boo ..."
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Cited by 614 (21 self)
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A given Boolean function has its input distributed among many parties. The aim is to determine which parties to tMk to and what information to exchange with each of them in order to evaluate the function while minimizing the total communication. This paper shows that it is possible to obtain the Boolean answer deterministically with only a polynomial increase in communication with respect to the information lower bound given by the nondeterministic communication complexity of the function.
Boundedwidth polynomialsize branching programs recognize exactly those languages
 in NC’, in “Proceedings, 18th ACM STOC
, 1986
"... We show that any language recognized by an NC ’ circuit (fanin 2, depth O(log n)) can be recognized by a width5 polynomialsize branching program. As any boundedwidth polynomialsize branching program can be simulated by an NC ’ circuit, we have that the class of languages recognized by such prog ..."
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Cited by 209 (13 self)
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We show that any language recognized by an NC ’ circuit (fanin 2, depth O(log n)) can be recognized by a width5 polynomialsize branching program. As any boundedwidth polynomialsize branching program can be simulated by an NC ’ circuit, we have that the class of languages recognized by such programs is exactly nonuniform NC’. Further, following
The NPcompleteness column: an ongoing guide
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1985
"... This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co ..."
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Cited by 188 (0 self)
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This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as ‘‘[G&J]’’; previous columns will be referred to by their dates). A background equivalent to that provided by [G&J] is assumed, and, when appropriate, crossreferences will be given to that book and the list of problems (NPcomplete and harder) presented there. Readers who have results they would like mentioned (NPhardness, PSPACEhardness, polynomialtimesolvability, etc.) or open problems they would like publicized, should
Unbiased Bits from Sources of Weak Randomness and Probabilistic Communication Complexity
, 1988
"... , Introduction and References only) Benny Chor Oded Goldreich MIT \Gamma Laboratory for Computer Science Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ABSTRACT \Gamma A new model for weak random physical sources is presented. The new model strictly generalizes previous models (e.g. the Santha and Vazirani model [2 ..."
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Cited by 182 (4 self)
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, Introduction and References only) Benny Chor Oded Goldreich MIT \Gamma Laboratory for Computer Science Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ABSTRACT \Gamma A new model for weak random physical sources is presented. The new model strictly generalizes previous models (e.g. the Santha and Vazirani model [24]). The sources considered output strings according to probability distributions in which no single string is too probable. The new model provides a fruitful viewpoint on problems studied previously as: ffl Extracting almost perfect bits from sources of weak randomness: the question of possibility as well as the question of efficiency of such extraction schemes are addressed. ffl Probabilistic Communication Complexity: it is shown that most functions have linear communication complexity in a very strong probabilistic sense. ffl Robustness of BPP with respect to sources of weak randomness (generalizing a result of Vazirani and Vazirani [27]). The paper has appeared in SIAM Journal o...
Synopsis Data Structures for Massive Data Sets
"... Abstract. Massive data sets with terabytes of data are becoming commonplace. There is an increasing demand for algorithms and data structures that provide fast response times to queries on such data sets. In this paper, we describe a context for algorithmic work relevant to massive data sets and a f ..."
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Cited by 108 (13 self)
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Abstract. Massive data sets with terabytes of data are becoming commonplace. There is an increasing demand for algorithms and data structures that provide fast response times to queries on such data sets. In this paper, we describe a context for algorithmic work relevant to massive data sets and a framework for evaluating such work. We consider the use of "synopsis" data structures, which use very little space and provide fast (typically approximated) answers to queries. The design and analysis of effective synopsis data structures o er many algorithmic challenges. We discuss a number of concrete examples of synopsis data structures, and describe fast algorithms for keeping them uptodate in the presence of online updates to the data sets.
Majority Gates vs. General Weighted Threshold Gates
 Computational Complexity
, 1992
"... . In this paper we study small depth circuits that contain threshold gates (with or without weights) and parity gates. All circuits we consider are of polynomial size. We prove several results which complete the work on characterizing possible inclusions between many classes defined by small depth c ..."
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Cited by 89 (7 self)
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. In this paper we study small depth circuits that contain threshold gates (with or without weights) and parity gates. All circuits we consider are of polynomial size. We prove several results which complete the work on characterizing possible inclusions between many classes defined by small depth circuits. These results are the following: 1. A single threshold gate with weights cannot in general be replaced by a polynomial fanin unweighted threshold gate of parity gates. 2. On the other hand it can be replaced by a depth 2 unweighted threshold circuit of polynomial size. An extension of this construction is used to prove that whatever can be computed by a depth d polynomial size threshold circuit with weights can be computed by a depth d + 1 polynomial size unweighted threshold circuit, where d is an arbitrary fixed integer. 3. A polynomial fanin threshold gate (with weights) of parity gates cannot in general be replaced by a depth 2 unweighted threshold circuit of polynomial size...
On Data Structures and Asymmetric Communication Complexity
 JOURNAL OF COMPUTER AND SYSTEM SCIENCES
, 1994
"... In this paper we consider two party communication complexity when the input sizes of the two players differ significantly, the "asymmetric" case. Most of previous work on communication complexity only considers the total number of bits sent, but we study tradeoffs between the number of bits the ..."
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Cited by 85 (9 self)
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In this paper we consider two party communication complexity when the input sizes of the two players differ significantly, the "asymmetric" case. Most of previous work on communication complexity only considers the total number of bits sent, but we study tradeoffs between the number of bits the first player sends and the number of bits the second sends. These
Lower bounds for orthogonal range searching: I. the reporting case
 Journal of the ACM
, 1990
"... Abstract. We establish lower bounds on the complexity of orthogonal range reporting in the static case. Given a collection of n points in dspace and a box [a,, b,] x. x [ad, bd], report every point whose ith coordinate lies in [a,, biJ, for each i = 1,..., d. The collection of points is fixed once ..."
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Cited by 65 (4 self)
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Abstract. We establish lower bounds on the complexity of orthogonal range reporting in the static case. Given a collection of n points in dspace and a box [a,, b,] x. x [ad, bd], report every point whose ith coordinate lies in [a,, biJ, for each i = 1,..., d. The collection of points is fixed once and for all and can be preprocessed. The box, on the other hand, constitutes a query that must be answered online. It is shown that on a pointer machine a query time of O(k + polylog(n)), where k is the number of points to be reported, can only be achieved at the expense of fl(n(logn/loglogn)d‘) storage. Interestingly, these bounds are optimal in the pointer machine model, but they can be improved (ever so slightly) on a random access machine. In a companion paper, we address the related problem of adding up weights assigned to the points in the query box.
Optimal space lower bounds for all frequency moments
 In SODA
, 2004
"... Abstract We prove that any onepass streaming algorithm which (ffl, ffi)approximates the kth frequency moment Fk, for any real k 6 = 1 and any ffl = \Omega i 1pm j, must use \Omega \Gamma 1ffl2 \Delta bits of space, where m is the size of the universe. This is optimal in terms of ffl, resolves the ..."
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Cited by 60 (12 self)
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Abstract We prove that any onepass streaming algorithm which (ffl, ffi)approximates the kth frequency moment Fk, for any real k 6 = 1 and any ffl = \Omega i 1pm j, must use \Omega \Gamma 1ffl2 \Delta bits of space, where m is the size of the universe. This is optimal in terms of ffl, resolves the open questions of BarYossef et al in [3, 4], and extends the \Omega \Gamma 1ffl2 \Delta lower bound for F0 in [11] to much smaller ffl by applying novel techniques. Along the way we lower bound the oneway communication complexity of approximating the Hamming distance and the number of bipartite graphs with minimum/maximum degree constraints. 1 Introduction Computing statistics on massive data sets is increasinglyimportant these days. Advances in communication and storage technology enable large bodies of raw datato be generated daily, and consequently, there is a rising demand to process this data efficiently. Sinceit is impractical for an algorithm to store even a small fraction of the data stream, its performance istypically measured by the amount of space it uses. In many scenarios, such as internet routing, once a streamelement is examined it is lost forever unless explicitly saved by the processing algorithm. This, along with thesheer size of the data, makes multiple passes over the data infeasible. In this paper we restrict our attention toonepass streaming algorithms and we investigate their space complexity.Let a =